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Creators/Authors contains: "Rimer, Jeffrey D."

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  1. Abstract

    Hematin crystallization is an essential element of heme detoxification of malaria parasites and its inhibition by antimalarial drugs is a common treatment avenue. We demonstrate at biomimetic conditions in vitro irreversible inhibition of hematin crystal growth due to distinct cooperative mechanisms that activate at high crystallization driving forces. The evolution of crystal shape after limited-time exposure to both artemisinin metabolites and quinoline-class antimalarials indicates that crystal growth remains suppressed after the artemisinin metabolites and the drugs are purged from the solution. Treating malaria parasites with the same agents reveals that three- and six-hour inhibitor pulses inhibit parasite growth with efficacy comparable to that of inhibitor exposure during the entire parasite lifetime. Time-resolved in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), complemented by light scattering, reveals two molecular-level mechanisms of inhibitor action that prevent β-hematin growth recovery. Hematin adducts of artemisinins incite copious nucleation of nonextendable nanocrystals, which incorporate into larger growing crystals, whereas pyronaridine, a quinoline-class drug, promotes step bunches, which evolve to engender abundant dislocations. Both incorporated crystals and dislocations are known to induce lattice strain, which persists and permanently impedes crystal growth. Nucleation, step bunching, and other cooperative behaviors can be amplified or curtailed as means to control crystal sizes, size distributions, aspect ratios, and other properties essential for numerous fields that rely on crystalline materials.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Modifiers are commonly used in natural, biological, and synthetic crystallization to tailor the growth of diverse materials. Here, we identify tautomers as a new class of modifiers where the dynamic interconversion between solute and its corresponding tautomer(s) produces native crystal growth inhibitors. The macroscopic and microscopic effects imposed by inhibitor-crystal interactions reveal dual mechanisms of inhibition where tautomer occlusion within crystals that leads to natural bending, tunes elastic modulus, and selectively alters the rate of crystal dissolution. Our study focuses on ammonium urate crystallization and shows that the keto-enol form of urate, which exists as a minor tautomer, is a potent inhibitor that nearly suppresses crystal growth at select solution alkalinity and supersaturation. The generalizability of this phenomenon is demonstrated for two additional tautomers with relevance to biological systems and pharmaceuticals. These findings offer potential routes in crystal engineering to strategically control the mechanical or physicochemical properties of tautomeric materials.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We report a method to prepare core–shell zeolite beta (*BEA) with an aluminous core and an epitaxial Si‐rich shell. This method capitalizes on the inherent defects in *BEA crystals to simultaneously passivate acid sites on external surfaces and increase intracrystalline mesoporosity through facile post‐hydrothermal synthesis modification in alkaline media. This process creates more hydrophobic materials by reducing silanol defects and enriching the shell in silica via a combination of dealumination and the relocation of silica from the core to the shell during intracrystalline mesopore formation. The catalytic consequences of *BEA core–shells relative to conventional analogues were tested using the biomass conversion of levulinic acid andn‐butanol ton‐butyl levulinate as a benchmark reaction. Our findings reveal that siliceous shells and intracrystalline mesopores synergistically enhance the performance of *BEA catalysts.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We report a method to prepare core–shell zeolite beta (*BEA) with an aluminous core and an epitaxial Si‐rich shell. This method capitalizes on the inherent defects in *BEA crystals to simultaneously passivate acid sites on external surfaces and increase intracrystalline mesoporosity through facile post‐hydrothermal synthesis modification in alkaline media. This process creates more hydrophobic materials by reducing silanol defects and enriching the shell in silica via a combination of dealumination and the relocation of silica from the core to the shell during intracrystalline mesopore formation. The catalytic consequences of *BEA core–shells relative to conventional analogues were tested using the biomass conversion of levulinic acid andn‐butanol ton‐butyl levulinate as a benchmark reaction. Our findings reveal that siliceous shells and intracrystalline mesopores synergistically enhance the performance of *BEA catalysts.

     
    more » « less