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Creators/Authors contains: "Rios-Berrios, Rosimar"

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  1. Abstract

    The impact of low-level flow (LLF) direction on the intensification of intense tropical cyclones under moderate deep-layer shear is investigated based on idealized numerical experiments. The background flow profiles are constructed by varying the LLF direction with the same moderate deep-layer shear. When the maximum surface wind speed of the simulation without background flow reaches 70 kt (36 m s−1), the background flow profiles are imposed. After a weakening period in the first 12 h, the members with upshear-left-pointing LLF (fast-intensifying group) intensify faster between 12 and 24 h than those members (slow-intensifying group) with downshear-right-pointing LLF. The fast-intensifying group experiences earlier development of inner-core structures after 12 h, such as potential vorticity below the midtroposphere, upper-level warm core, eyewall axisymmetrization, and radial moist entropy gradient, while the inner-core features of the slow-intensifying group remain relatively weak and asymmetric. The FI group experiences smaller tilt increase and stronger midlevel PV ring development. The upshear-left convection during 6–12 h is responsible for the earlier development of the inner core by reducing ventilation, providing axisymmetric heating, and benefiting the eyewall development. The LLF of the fast-intensifying group enhances surface heat fluxes in the downshear side, resulting in higher energy supply tomore »the upshear-left convection from the boundary layer. In all, this study provides new insights on the impact of LLF direction on intense storms under moderate shear by modulating the surface heat fluxes and eyewall convection.

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  2. Abstract

    Idealized numerical simulations of weak tropical cyclones (e.g., tropical depressions and tropical storms) in sheared environments indicate that vortex tilt reduction and convective symmetrization are key structural changes that can precede intensification. Through a series of ensembles of idealized numerical simulations, this study demonstrates that including radiation in the simulations affects the timing and variability of those structural changes. The underlying reason for those effects is a background thermodynamic profile with reduced energy available to fuel strong downdrafts; such a profile leads to weaker lower-tropospheric ventilation, greater azimuthal coverage of clouds and precipitation, and smaller vortex tilt with radiation. Consequently, the simulations with radiation allow for earlier intensification at stronger shear magnitudes than without radiation. An unexpected finding from this work is a reduction of both vortex tilt and intensity variability with radiation in environments with 5 m s−1 deep-layer shear. This reduction stems from reduced variability in nonlinear feedbacks between lower-tropospheric ventilation, cold pools, convection, and vortex tilt. Sensitivity experiments confirm the relationship between those processes and suggest that microphysical processes (e.g., rain evaporation) are major sources of uncertainty in the representation of weak, sheared tropical cyclones in numerical weather prediction models.