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  1. Hydrogen spillover involves the migration of H atom equivalents from metal nanoparticles to a support. While well documented, H spillover is poorly understood and largely unquantified. Here we measure weak, reversible H2 adsorption on Au/TiO2 catalysts, and extract the surface concentration of spilled-over hydrogen. The spillover species (H*) is best described as a loosely coupled proton/electron pair distributed across the titania surface hydroxyls. In stark contrast to traditional gas adsorption systems, H* adsorption increases with temperature. This unexpected adsorption behaviour has two origins. First, entropically favourable adsorption results from high proton mobility and configurational surface entropy. Second, the number of spillover sites increases with temperature, due to increasing hydroxyl acid–base equilibrium constants. Increased H* adsorption correlates with the associated changes in titania surface zwitterion concentration. This study provides a quantitative assessment of how hydroxyl surface chemistry impacts spillover thermodynamics, and contributes to the general understanding of spillover phenomena. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
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    Cobalt( ii ) ions were adsorbed to the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals and subsequently heated to promote ion diffusion into the nanocrystal. After removal of any remaining surface bound cobalt, a sample consisting of strictly cobalt-doped TiO 2 was obtained and characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The nanocrystal morphology was unchanged in the process and no new crystal phases were detected. The concentration of cobalt in the doped samples linearly correlates with the initial loading of cobalt( ii ) ions on the nanocrystal surface. Thin films of the cobalt doped TiO 2 nanocrystals were prepared on indium-tin oxide coated glass substrate, and the electrical conductivity increased with the concentration of doped cobalt. Magnetic measurements of the cobalt-doped TiO 2 nanocrystals reveal paramagnetic behavior at room temperature, and antiferromagnetic interactions between Co ions at low temperatures. Antiferromagnetism is atypical for cobalt-doped TiO 2 nanocrystals, and is proposed to arise from interstitial doping that may be favored by the diffusional doping mechanism. 
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