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  1. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many school accountability systems that rely on student- level achievement data. Many states have encountered uncertainty about how to meet federal accountability requirements without typical school data. Prior research provides an abundance of evidence that student achievement is correlated to students' social background, which raises concerns about the predictive bias of accountability systems. The focus of this quantitative study is to explore the predictive ability of non-achievement based variables (i.e., students' social background) on measures of school accountability in one Midwest state. Results suggest that social background and community demographic variables have a significant impact on measures of school accountability, and might be interpreted cautiously. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Self-driving vehicles are the latest innovation in improving personal mobility and road safety by removing arguably error-prone humans from driving-related tasks. Such advances can prove especially beneficial for people who are blind or have low vision who cannot legally operate conventional motor vehicles. Missing from the related literature, we argue, are studies that describe strategies for vehicle design for these persons. We present a case study of the participatory design of a prototype for a self-driving vehicle human-machine interface (HMI) for a graduate-level course on inclusive design and accessible technology. We reflect on the process of working alongside a co-designer, a person with a visual disability, to identify user needs, define design ideas, and produce a low-fidelity prototype for the HMI. This paper may benefit researchers interested in using a similar approach for designing accessible autonomous vehicle technology. INTRODUCTION The rise of autonomous vehicles (AVs) may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in personal mobility of the past century. Advances in automated vehicle technology and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) specifically, may have a significant impact on road safety and a reduction in vehicle accidents (Brinkley et al., 2017; Dearen, 2018). According to the Department of Transportationmore »(DoT), automated vehicles could help reduce road accidents caused by human error by as much as 94% (SAE International, n.d.). In addition to reducing traffic accidents and saving lives and property, autonomous vehicles may also prove to be of significant value to persons who cannot otherwise operate conventional motor vehicles. AVs may provide the necessary mobility, for instance, to help create new employment opportunities for nearly 40 million Americans with disabilities (Claypool et al., 2017; Guiding Eyes for the Blind, 2019), for instance. Advocates for the visually impaired specifically have expressed how “transformative” this technology can be for those who are blind or have significant low vision (Winter, 2015); persons who cannot otherwise legally operate a motor vehicle. While autonomous vehicles have the potential to break down transportation« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. ABSTRACT Regional climate modeling addresses our need to understand and simulate climatic processes and phenomena unresolved in global models. This paper highlights examples of current approaches to and innovative uses of regional climate modeling that deepen understanding of the climate system. High-resolution models are generally more skillful in simulating extremes, such as heavy precipitation, strong winds, and severe storms. In addition, research has shown that fine-scale features such as mountains, coastlines, lakes, irrigation, land use, and urban heat islands can substantially influence a region’s climate and its response to changing forcings. Regional climate simulations explicitly simulating convection are now being performed, providing an opportunity to illuminate new physical behavior that previously was represented by parameterizations with large uncertainties. Regional and global models are both advancing toward higher resolution, as computational capacity increases. However, the resolution and ensemble size necessary to produce a sufficient statistical sample of these processes in global models has proven too costly for contemporary supercomputing systems. Regional climate models are thus indispensable tools that complement global models for understanding physical processes governing regional climate variability and change. The deeper understanding of regional climate processes also benefits stakeholders and policymakers who need physically robust, high-resolution climate information tomore »guide societal responses to changing climate. Key scientific questions that will continue to require regional climate models, and opportunities are emerging for addressing those questions.« less
  6. Sodium sulfite, sodium thiosulfate, and ascorbic acid are commonly used to quench free chlorine and free bromine in studies of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water, wastewater, and recreational water. The reducing capabilities of these quenchers, however, can lead to the degradation of some redox-labile analytes. Ammonium chloride, another common quencher, converts free chlorine into monochloramine and is therefore inappropriate for analytes susceptible to chloramination. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene (TMB) as a quencher of free chlorine and free bromine. The reactivity of TMB toward free chlorine was characterized previously. The reactivity of TMB toward free bromine was quantified herein ( k HOBr,TMB = 3.35 × 10 6 M −1 s −1 ) using competition kinetics. To explore the feasibility of TMB serving as a free halogen quencher for kinetic experiments, chlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol, bromination of anisole, and chlorination and bromination of dimethenamid-P were examined. Although TMB does not react with free chlorine or free bromine as quickly as do some (but not all) traditional quenchers, there was generally no significant difference in the experimental rate constants with TMB (relative to thiosulfate) as the quencher. By monitoring the chlorination and bromination products of TMB, free halogen residuals inmore »quenched samples were quantified. Furthermore, TMB did not affect the stabilities of DBPs ( e.g. , chloropicrin and bromoacetonitriles) that otherwise degraded in the presence of traditional quenchers. TMB could, therefore, be an appropriate quencher of free chlorine and free bromine in aqueous halogenation experiments involving redox-labile analytes and/or when selective quantification of residual free halogens is desired.« less