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  1. Abstract

    Though Paleozoic ray‐finned fishes are considered to be morphologically conservative, we report a novel mode of fang accommodation (i.e., the fitting of fangs inside the jaw) in the Permian actinopterygian †Brazilichthys macrognathus, whereby the teeth of the lower jaw insert into fenestrae of the upper jaw. To better understand how fishes have accommodated lower jaw fangs through geologic time, we synthesize the multitude of ways living and extinct osteichthyans have housed large mandibular dentition. While the precise structure of fang accommodation seen in †Brazilichthyshas not been reported in any other osteichthyans, alternate strategies of upper jaw fenestration to fit mandibular fangs are present in some extant ray‐finned fishes—the needlejawsAcestrorhynchusand the gars of the genusLepisosteus. Notably, out of our survey, only the two aforementioned neopterygians bear upper jaw fenestration for the accommodation of mandibular fangs. We implicate the kinetic jaws of neopterygians in this trend, whereby large mandibular fangs are more easily fit between the multitude of upper jaw and palatal bones. The restricted space available in early osteichthyan jaws may have led to a proliferation of novel ways to accommodate large dentition. We recommend a greater survey of Paleozoic actinopterygian jaw morphology, in light of these results and other recent reevaluations of jaw structure in early fossil ray‐fins.

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  2. Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi (Ed.)

    The resistance of xylem conduits to embolism is a major factor defining drought tolerance and can set the distributional limits of species across rainfall gradients. Recent work suggests that the proximity of vessels to neighbors increases the vulnerability of a conduit. We therefore investigated whether the relative vessel area of xylem correlates with intra- and inter-generic variation in xylem embolism resistance in species pairs or triplets from the genera Acer, Cinnamomum, Ilex, Quercus and Persea, adapted to environments differing in aridity. We used the optical vulnerability method to assess embolism resistance in stems and conducted anatomical measurements on the xylem in which embolism resistance was quantified. Vessel lumen fraction (VLF) correlated with xylem embolism resistance across and within genera. A low VLF likely increases the resistance to gas movement between conduits, by diffusion or advection, whereas a high VLF enhances gas transport thorough increased conduit-to-conduit connectivity and reduced distances between conduits and therefore the likelihood of embolism propagation. We suggest that the rate of gas movement due to local pressure differences and xylem network connectivity is a central driver of embolism propagation in angiosperm vessels.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  7. Abstract Multijet events at large transverse momentum ( $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T ) are measured at $$\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {TeV} $$ s = 13 TeV using data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $$36.3{\,\text {fb}^{-1}} $$ 36.3 fb - 1 . The multiplicity of jets with $$p_{\textrm{T}} >50\,\text {GeV} $$ p T > 50 GeV that are produced in association with a high- $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T dijet system is measured in various ranges of the $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T of the jet with the highest transverse momentum and as a function of the azimuthal angle difference $$\varDelta \phi _{1,2}$$ Δ ϕ 1 , 2 between the two highest $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T jets in the dijet system. The differential production cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the four highest $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T jets. The measurements are compared with leading and next-to-leading order matrix element calculations supplemented with simulations of parton shower, hadronization, and multiparton interactions. In addition, the measurements are compared with next-to-leading order matrix element calculations combined with transverse-momentum dependent parton densities and transverse-momentum dependent parton shower. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  8. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    Results are presented from a search for CP violation in top quark pair production, using proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data used for this analysis consist of final states with two charged leptons collected by the CMS experiment, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb1. The search uses two observables,$$ \mathcal{O} $$O1and$$ \mathcal{O} $$O3, which are Lorentz scalars. The observable$$ \mathcal{O} $$O1is constructed from the four-momenta of the charged leptons and the reconstructed top quarks, while$$ \mathcal{O} $$O3consists of the four-momenta of the charged leptons and the b quarks originating from the top quarks. Asymmetries in these observables are sensitive to CP violation, and their measurement is used to determine the chromoelectric dipole moment of the top quark. The results are consistent with the expectation from the standard model.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  10. Abstract

    The double differential cross sections of the Drell–Yan lepton pair ($$\ell ^+\ell ^-$$+-, dielectron or dimuon) production are measured as functions of the invariant mass$$m_{\ell \ell }$$m, transverse momentum$$p_{\textrm{T}} (\ell \ell )$$pT(), and$$\varphi ^{*}_{\eta }$$φη. The$$\varphi ^{*}_{\eta }$$φηobservable, derived from angular measurements of the leptons and highly correlated with$$p_{\textrm{T}} (\ell \ell )$$pT(), is used to probe the low-$$p_{\textrm{T}} (\ell \ell )$$pT()region in a complementary way. Dilepton masses up to 1$$\,\text {Te\hspace{-.08em}V}$$TeVare investigated. Additionally, a measurement is performed requiring at least one jet in the final state. To benefit from partial cancellation of the systematic uncertainty, the ratios of the differential cross sections for various$$m_{\ell \ell }$$mranges to those in the Z mass peak interval are presented. The collected data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36.3$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1of proton–proton collisions recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 13$$\,\text {Te\hspace{-.08em}V}$$TeV. Measurements are compared with predictions based on perturbative quantum chromodynamics, including soft-gluon resummation.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024