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Creators/Authors contains: "Rodriguez, Carl L."

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  1. Abstract

    Observations have shown that the majority of massive stars, the progenitors of black holes (BHs), have on average more than one stellar companion. In triple systems, wide inner binaries can be driven to a merger by a third body due to long-term secular interactions, most notably by the eccentric Lidov–Kozai effect. In this study, we explore the properties of BH mergers in triple systems and compare their population properties to those of binaries produced in isolation and assembled in dense star clusters. Using the same stellar physics and identical assumptions for the initial populations of binaries and triples, we show that stellar triples yield a significantly flatter mass ratio distribution fromq= 1 down toq∼ 0.3 than either binary stars or dense stellar clusters, similar to the population properties inferred from the most recent catalog of gravitational-wave events, though we do not claim that all the observed events can be accounted for with triples. While hierarchical mergers in clusters can also produce asymmetric mass ratios, the unique spins of such mergers can be used to distinguish them from those produced from stellar triples. All three channels occupy distinct regions in the total mass–mass ratio space, which may allow them tomore »be disentangled as more BH mergers are detected by LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA.

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  2. ABSTRACT

    The properties of young star clusters formed within a galaxy are thought to vary in different interstellar medium conditions, but the details of this mapping from galactic to cluster scales are poorly understood due to the large dynamic range involved in galaxy and star cluster formation. We introduce a new method for modelling cluster formation in galaxy simulations: mapping giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed self-consistently in a FIRE-2 magnetohydrodynamic galaxy simulation on to a cluster population according to a GMC-scale cluster formation model calibrated to higher resolution simulations, obtaining detailed properties of the galaxy’s star clusters in mass, metallicity, space, and time. We find $\sim 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of all stars formed in the galaxy originate in gravitationally bound clusters overall, and this fraction increases in regions with elevated Σgas and ΣSFR, because such regions host denser GMCs with higher star formation efficiency. These quantities vary systematically over the history of the galaxy, driving variations in cluster formation. The mass function of bound clusters varies – no single Schechter-like or power-law distribution applies at all times. In the most extreme episodes, clusters as massive as 7 × 106 M⊙ form in massive, dense clouds with high star formation efficiency. Themore »initial mass–radius relation of young star clusters is consistent with an environmentally dependent 3D density that increases with Σgas and ΣSFR. The model does not reproduce the age and metallicity statistics of old ($\gt 11\rm Gyr$) globular clusters found in the Milky Way, possibly because it forms stars more slowly at z > 3.

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  3. Abstract The globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) is one of the most massive star clusters in the Milky Way and is exceptionally rich in exotic stellar populations. For several decades it has been a favorite target of observers, and yet it is computationally very challenging to model because of its large number of stars ( N ≳ 10 6 ) and high density. Here we present detailed and self-consistent 47 Tuc models computed with the Cluster Monte Carlo code ( CMC ). The models include all relevant dynamical interactions coupled to stellar and binary evolution, and reproduce various observations, including the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles, pulsar accelerations, and numbers of compact objects. We show that the present properties of 47 Tuc are best reproduced by adopting an initial stellar mass function that is both bottom-heavy and top-light relative to standard assumptions (as in, e.g., Kroupa 2001), and an initial Elson profile (Elson et al. 1987) that is overfilling the cluster’s tidal radius. We include new prescriptions in CMC for the formation of binaries through giant star collisions and tidal captures, and we show that these mechanisms play a crucial role in the formation of neutron star binariesmore »and millisecond pulsars in 47 Tuc; our best-fit model contains ∼50 millisecond pulsars, 70% of which are formed through giant collisions and tidal captures. Our models also suggest that 47 Tuc presently contains up to ∼200 stellar-mass black holes, ∼5 binary black holes, ∼15 low-mass X-ray binaries, and ∼300 cataclysmic variables.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 26, 2023
  4. Abstract

    We describe the public release of the Cluster Monte Carlo (CMC) code, a parallel, star-by-starN-body code for modeling dense star clusters.CMCtreats collisional stellar dynamics using Hénon’s method, where the cumulative effect of many two-body encounters is statistically reproduced as a single effective encounter between nearest-neighbor particles on a relaxation timescale. The star-by-star approach allows for the inclusion of additional physics, including strong gravitational three- and four-body encounters, two-body tidal and gravitational-wave captures, mass loss in arbitrary galactic tidal fields, and stellar evolution for both single and binary stars. The public release ofCMCis pinned directly to theCOSMICpopulation synthesis code, allowing dynamical star cluster simulations and population synthesis studies to be performed using identical assumptions about the stellar physics and initial conditions. As a demonstration, we present two examples of star cluster modeling: first, we perform the largest (N= 108) star-by-starN-body simulation of a Plummer sphere evolving to core collapse, reproducing the expected self-similar density profile over more than 15 orders of magnitude; second, we generate realistic models for typical globular clusters, and we show that their dynamical evolution can produce significant numbers of black hole mergers with masses greater than those produced from isolated binary evolution (such as GW190521, amore »recently reported merger with component masses in the pulsational pair-instability mass gap).

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