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  1. Research Problem: Climate change is one of the most important environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. The documented impacts of climate change are extensive. Climate change education can help students link this global issue to students’ everyday lives, foster a climate-literate public, and serve as motivation for action. Yet prior to instructional interventions, the first step in promoting conceptual change is to describe expert and novice conceptions or mental models of the topic (Treagust and Duit 2009). Published studies about students’ climate change knowledge primarily stem from the earth and atmospheric sciences, and focus on students’ knowledge ofmore »the mechanisms causing global warming and of the abiotic systems important to climate change. Limited research has documented undergraduate students’ knowledge about the biotic impacts of climate change. Our goal was to describe student/novice and instructor/expert conceptual knowledge of the biotic impacts of climate change. Research Design: We conducted interviews with 30 undergraduates and 10 instructors who are students or teaching in Introductory Biology or Ecology classes. Our semi-structured interview protocol probed participants’ conceptions of the mechanisms, outcomes and levels of impact that climate change has on the biological world. Participants were taken from varying institutions across the US (Baccalaureate, Master’s, and Doctoral). Analyses: Following transcription of all interviews, we used thematic coding analysis to describe novice and expert conceptions of the biotic impacts to climate change. We also compared across interview populations to describe how novice and expert conceptions compare. Contribution: Our findings contribute understanding of biology student and expert knowledge of the biotic impacts of climate change and contribute more broadly to the field of climate science where research on understanding of the biotic impacts of climate change is minimal. Our work will represent a novel perspective because most climate education research at the university-level has focused on earth and atmospheric science students. Further, this work is the first step in a larger project that aims to develop valid and reliable concept inventory related to biotic impacts of climate change – an instrument sorely needed to properly address improvements to climate change education.« less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  4. A bstract The NA62 experiment reports the branching ratio measurement $$ \mathrm{BR}\left({K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu}\right)=\left({10.6}_{-3.4}^{+4.0}\left|{}_{\mathrm{stat}}\right.\pm {0.9}_{\mathrm{syst}}\right)\times {10}^{-11} $$ BR K + → π + ν ν ¯ = 10.6 − 3.4 + 4.0 stat ± 0.9 syst × 10 − 11 at 68% CL, based on the observation of 20 signal candidates with an expected background of 7.0 events from the total data sample collected at the CERN SPS during 2016–2018. This provides evidence for the very rare K + → $$ {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ π + ν ν ¯ decay, observed with a significance of 3.4 σ . The experimentmore »achieves a single event sensitivity of (0 . 839 ± 0 . 054) × 10 − 11 , corresponding to 10.0 events assuming the Standard Model branching ratio of (8 . 4 ± 1 . 0) × 10 − 11 . This measurement is also used to set limits on BR( K + → π + X ), where X is a scalar or pseudo-scalar particle. Details are given of the analysis of the 2018 data sample, which corresponds to about 80% of the total data sample.« less
  5. A bstract A search for the K + → π + X decay, where X is a long-lived feebly interacting particle, is performed through an interpretation of the K + → $$ {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ π + ν ν ¯ analysis of data collected in 2017 by the NA62 experiment at CERN. Two ranges of X masses, 0–110 MeV /c 2 and 154–260 MeV /c 2 , and lifetimes above 100 ps are considered. The limits set on the branching ratio, BR( K + → π + X ), are competitive with previously reported searches in the first mass range,more »and improve on current limits in the second mass range by more than an order of magnitude.« less
  6. A bstract The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS reports a study of a sample of 4 × 10 9 tagged π 0 mesons from K + → π + π 0 ( γ ), searching for the decay of the π 0 to invisible particles. No signal is observed in excess of the expected background fluctuations. An upper limit of 4 . 4 × 10 − 9 is set on the branching ratio at 90% confidence level, improving on previous results by a factor of 60. This result can also be interpreted as a model- independent upper limit onmore »the branching ratio for the decay K + → π + X , where X is a particle escaping detection with mass in the range 0.110–0.155 GeV /c 2 and rest lifetime greater than 100 ps. Model-dependent upper limits are obtained assuming X to be an axion-like particle with dominant fermion couplings or a dark scalar mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson.« less
  7. A bstract The NA62 experiment reports an investigation of the $$ {K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ K + → π + ν ν ¯ mode from a sample of K + decays collected in 2017 at the CERN SPS. The experiment has achieved a single event sensitivity of (0 . 389 ± 0 . 024) × 10 − 10 , corresponding to 2.2 events assuming the Standard Model branching ratio of (8 . 4 ± 1 . 0) × 10 − 11 . Two signal candidates are observed with an expected background of 1.5 events. Combined with the result of amore »similar analysis conducted by NA62 on a smaller data set recorded in 2016, the collaboration now reports an upper limit of 1 . 78 × 10 − 10 for the $$ {K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ K + → π + ν ν ¯ branching ratio at 90% CL. This, together with the corresponding 68% CL measurement of ( $$ {0.48}_{-0.48}^{+0.72} $$ 0.48 − 0.48 + 0.72 ) × 10 − 10 , are currently the most precise results worldwide, and are able to constrain some New Physics models that predict large enhancements still allowed by previous measurements.« less