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    The globular cluster (GC) systems of low-mass late-type galaxies, such as NGC 2403, have been poorly studied to date. As a low mass galaxy (M*  = 7 × 109 M⊙), cosmological simulations predict NGC 2403 to contain few, if any, accreted GCs. It is also isolated, with a remarkably undisturbed HI disc. Based on candidates from the literature, Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging, we selected several GCs for follow-up spectroscopy using the Keck Cosmic Web Imager. From their radial velocities and other properties, we identify eight bona-fide GCs associated with either the inner halo or the disc of this bulgeless galaxy. A stellar population analysis suggests a wide range of GC ages from shortly after the big bang until the present day. We find all of the old GCs to be metal-poor with [Fe/H] ≤ −1. The age–metallicity relation for the observed GCs suggests that they were formed over many Gyr from gas with a low effective yield, similar to that observed in the SMC. Outflows of enriched material may have contributed to the low yield. With a total system of ∼50 GCs expected, our study is the first step in fully mapping the star cluster history of NGC 2403more »in both space and time.

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    The classical globular clusters found in all galaxy types have half-light radii of rh ∼ 2–4 pc, which have been tied to formation in the dense cores of giant molecular clouds. Some old star clusters have larger sizes, and it is unclear if these represent a fundamentally different mode of low-density star cluster formation. We report the discovery of a rare, young ‘faint fuzzy’ star cluster, NGC 247-SC1, on the outskirts of the low-mass spiral galaxy NGC 247 in the nearby Sculptor group, and measure its radial velocity using Keck spectroscopy. We use Hubble Space Telescope imaging to measure the cluster half-light radius of rh ≃ 12 pc and a luminosity of LV ≃ 4 × 105L⊙. We produce a colour–magnitude diagram of cluster stars and compare to theoretical isochrones, finding an age of ≃300 Myr, a metallicity of [Z/H] ∼ −0.6 and an inferred mass of M⋆ ≃ 9 × 104M⊙. The narrow width of blue-loop star magnitudes implies an age spread of ≲50 Myr, while no old red-giant branch stars are found, so SC1 is consistent with hosting a single stellar population, modulo several unexplained bright ‘red straggler’ stars. SC1 appears to be surrounded by tidal debris, at the end of an ∼2 kpc long stellar filament that alsomore »hosts two low-mass, low-density clusters of a similar age. We explore a link between the formation of these unusual clusters and an external perturbation of their host galaxy, illuminating a possible channel by which some clusters are born with large sizes.

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    We study the present-day rotational velocity (Vrot) and velocity dispersion (σ) profiles of the globular cluster (GC) systems in a sample of 50 lenticular (S0) galaxies from the E-MOSAICS galaxy formation simulations. We find that $82{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the galaxies have GCs that are rotating along the photometric major axis of the galaxy (aligned), while the remaining $18{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the galaxies do not (misaligned). This is generally consistent with the observations from the SLUGGS survey. For the aligned galaxies, classified as peaked and outwardly decreasing ($49{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), flat ($24{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), and increasing ($27{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) based on the Vrot/σ profiles out to large radii, we do not find any clear correlation between these present-day Vrot/σ profiles of the GCs and the past merger histories of the S0 galaxies, unlike in previous simulations of galaxy stars. For just over half of the misaligned galaxies, we find that the GC misalignment is the result of a major merger within the last $10\, \mathrm{Gyr}$ so that the ex-situ GCs are misaligned by an angle between 0° (co-rotation) and 180° (counter-rotation), with respect to the in situ GCs, depending on the orbital configurationmore »of the merging galaxies. For the remaining misaligned galaxies, we suggest that the in situ metal-poor GCs, formed at early times, have undergone more frequent kinematic perturbations than the in situ metal-rich GCs. We also find that the GCs accreted early and the in situ GCs are predominantly located within 0.2 virial radii (R200) from the centre of galaxies in 3D phase-space diagrams.

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    It is clear that within the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs), there is an extreme range in the richness of their associated globular cluster (GC) systems. Here, we report the structural properties of five UDGs in the Perseus cluster based on deep Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging. Three appear GC-poor and two appear GC-rich. One of our sample, PUDG_R24, appears to be undergoing quenching and is expected to fade into the UDG regime within the next ∼0.5 Gyr. We target this sample with Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) spectroscopy to investigate differences in their dark matter haloes, as expected from their differing GC content. Our spectroscopy measures both recessional velocities, confirming Perseus cluster membership, and stellar velocity dispersions, to measure dynamical masses within their half-light radius. We supplement our data with that from the literature to examine trends in galaxy parameters with GC system richness. We do not find the correlation between GC numbers and UDG phase space positioning expected if GC-rich UDGs environmentally quench at high redshift. We do find GC-rich UDGs to have higher velocity dispersions than GC-poor UDGs on average, resulting in greater dynamical mass within the half-light radius. This agrees with the first order expectation that GC-rich UDGsmore »have higher halo masses than GC-poor UDGs.

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  5. Abstract

    It has been shown that ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) have higher specific frequencies of globular clusters, on average, than other dwarf galaxies with similar luminosities. The UDG NGC 5846-UDG1 is among the most extreme examples of globular cluster–rich galaxies found so far. Here we present new Hubble Space Telescope observations and analysis of this galaxy and its globular cluster system. We find that NGC 5846-UDG1 hosts 54 ± 9 globular clusters, three to four times more than any previously known galaxy with a similar luminosity and higher than reported in previous studies. With a galaxy luminosity ofLV,gal≈ 6 × 107L(M≈ 1.2 × 108M) and a total globular cluster luminosity ofLV,GCs≈ 7.6 × 106L, we find that the clusters currently comprise ∼13% of the total light. Taking into account the effects of mass loss from clusters during their formation and throughout their lifetime, we infer that most of the stars in the galaxy likely formed in globular clusters, and very little to no “normal” low-density star formation occurred. This result implies that the most extreme conditions during early galaxy formation promoted star formation in massive and dense clumps, in contrast to the dispersed star formation observed in galaxies today.

  6. ABSTRACT We present spatially resolved two-dimensional maps and radial trends of the stellar populations and kinematics for a sample of six compact elliptical galaxies (cE) using spectroscopy from the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We recover their star formation histories, finding that all except one of our cEs are old and metal rich, with both age and metallicity decreasing toward their outer radii. We also use the integrated values within one effective radius to study different scaling relations. Comparing our cEs with others from the literature and from simulations we reveal the formation channel that these galaxies might have followed. All our cEs are fast rotators, with relatively high rotation values given their low ellipticites. In general, the properties of our cEs are very similar to those seen in the cores of more massive galaxies, and in particular, to massive compact galaxies. Five out of our six cEs are the result of stripping a more massive (compact or extended) galaxy, and only one cE is compatible with having been formed intrinsically as the low-mass compact object that we see today. These results further confirm that cEs are a mixed-bag of galaxies that can be formed following different formation channels, reportingmore »for the first time an evolutionary link within the realm of compact galaxies (at all stellar masses).« less