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  1. Abstract Virgo is the nearest galaxy cluster; it is thus ideal for studies of galaxy evolution in dense environments in the local universe. It is embedded in a complex filamentary network of galaxies and groups, which represents the skeleton of the large-scale Laniakea supercluster. Here we assemble a comprehensive catalog of galaxies extending up to ∼12 virial radii in projection from Virgo to revisit the cosmic-web structure around it. This work is the foundation of a series of papers that will investigate the multiwavelength properties of galaxies in the cosmic web around Virgo. We match spectroscopically confirmed sources from severalmore »databases and surveys including HyperLeda, NASA Sloan Atlas, NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, and ALFALFA. The sample consists of ∼7000 galaxies. By exploiting a tomographic approach, we identify 13 filaments, spanning several megaparsecs in length. Long >17 h –1 Mpc filaments, tend to be thin (<1 h –1 Mpc in radius) and with a low-density contrast (<5), while shorter filaments show a larger scatter in their structural properties. Overall, we find that filaments are a transitioning environment between the field and cluster in terms of local densities, galaxy morphologies, and fraction of barred galaxies. Denser filaments have a higher fraction of early-type galaxies, suggesting that the morphology–density relation is already in place in the filaments, before galaxies fall into the cluster itself. We release the full catalog of galaxies around Virgo and their associated properties.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 23, 2023
  2. Desiccation tolerance has evolved recurrently across diverse land plant lineages as an adaptation for survival in regions where seasonal rainfall drives periodic drying of vegetative tissues. Growing interest in this phenomenon has fueled recent physiological, biochemical, and genomic insights into the mechanistic basis of desiccation tolerance. Although, desiccation tolerance is often viewed as binary and monolithic, substantial variation exists in the phenotype and underlying mechanisms across diverse lineages, heterogeneous populations, and throughout the development of individual plants. Most studies have focused on conserved responses in a subset desiccation-tolerant plants under laboratory conditions. Consequently, the variability and natural diversity of desiccation-tolerantmore »phenotypes remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we discuss the natural variation in desiccation tolerance and argue that leveraging this diversity can improve our mechanistic understanding of desiccation tolerance. We summarize information collected from ~600 desiccation-tolerant land plants and discuss the taxonomic distribution and physiology of desiccation responses. We point out the need to quantify natural diversity of desiccation tolerance on three scales: variation across divergent lineages, intraspecific variation across populations, and variation across tissues and life stages of an individual plant. We conclude that this variability should be accounted for in experimental designs and can be leveraged for deeper insights into the intricacies of desiccation tolerance.« less
  3. Private lands provide key habitat for imperiled species and are core components of function protectected area networks; yet, their incorporation into national and regional conservation planning has been challenging. Identifying locations where private landowners are likely to participate in conservation initiatives can help avoid conflict and clarify trade-offs between ecological benefits and sociopolitical costs. Empirical, spatially explicit assessment of the factors associated with conservation on private land is an emerging tool for identifying future conservation opportunities. However, most data on private land conservation are voluntarily reported and incomplete, which complicates these assessments. We used a novel application of occupancy modelsmore »to analyze the occurrence of conservation easements on private land. We compared multiple formulations of occupancy models with a logistic regression model to predict the locations of conservation easements based on a spatially explicit social–ecological systems framework. We combined a simulation experiment with a case study of easement data in Idaho and Montana (United States) to illustrate the utility of the occupancy framework for modeling conservation on private land. Occupancy models that explicitly accounted for variation in reporting produced estimates of predictors that were substantially less biased than estimates produced by logistic regression under all simulated conditions. Occupancy models produced estimates for the 6 predictors we evaluated in our case study that were larger in magnitude, but less certain than those produced by logistic regression. These results suggest that occupancy models result in qualitatively different inferences regarding the effects of predictors on conservation easement occurrence than logistic regression and highlight the importance of integrating variable and incomplete reporting of participation in empirical analysis of conservation initiatives. Failure to do so can lead to emphasizing the wrong social, institutional, and environmental factors that enable conservation and underestimating conservation opportunities in landscapes where social norms or institutional constraints inhibit reporting.« less
  4. The impact of educators in informal science learning sites (ISLS) remains understudied from the perspective of youth visitors. Less is known about whether engagement with educators differs based on the age and gender of both visitor and educator. Here, visitors (5–17 years old) to six ISLS in the United States and United Kingdom (n¼488, female n¼244) were surveyed following an interaction with either a youth (14–18 -years old) or adult educator (19þ years old). For participants who reported lower interest in the exhibit, more educator engagement was related to greater self-reported learning. Younger children and adolescents reported more engagement withmore »an adult educator, whereas engagement in middle childhood did not differ based on educator age. Participants in middle childhood showed a trend toward answering more conceptual knowledge questions correctly following an interaction with a youth educator. Together, these findings emphasize the promise of tailoring educator experiences to visitor demographics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 13, 2022
  5. BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting that first-pass complete recanalization during mechanical thrombectomy is associated with better clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an emergent large vessel occlusion. We hypothesize that aspiration achieving complete clot ingestion results in higher first-pass successful recanalization with quantitative reduction in distal emboli. METHODS: A patient-specific cerebrovascular replica was connected to a flow loop. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was achieved with clot analogs. Independent variables were the diameter of the aspiration catheter (0.054-0.088in) and aspiration pattern (static versus cyclical). Outcome measures were the first-pass rates of complete clot ingestion, the extent of recanalization, and themore »particle-size distribution of distal emboli. RESULTS: All aspiration catheters were successfully navigated to the occlusion. Complete clot ingestion during aspiration thrombectomy resulted in first-pass complete recanalization in every experiment, only achieved in 21% of experiments with partial ingestion (P<0.0001). Aspiration through the large bore 0.088in device resulted in the highest rates of complete clot ingestion (90%). Cyclical aspiration significantly increased the rate of complete clot ingestion (OR21 [1.6, 266]; P=0.04). In all experiments, complete clot ingestion resulted in fewer and smaller distal emboli. CONCLUSIONS: Complete clot ingestion results in fewer distal emboli and the highest rates of first-pass complete recanalization. The rate of complete ingestion during aspiration thrombectomy is a function of both the inner diameter of the aspiration catheter and use of cyclical aspiration. Funding Source: This study was funded in part by a research grant (NSF Award: 1819491) from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Conference Proceeding: This paper was presented in part at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Society of Vascular & Interventional Neurology (SVIN), November 14-17, 2018 in San Diego, CA« less
  6. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around more than 50 nearby (z<0.03) groups and clusters of varied richness, morphological type mix, and X-ray luminosity. We aim to probe mechanisms of gas depletion and morphological transformation by considering the spatial distributions of star formation in galaxies inhabiting a wide range of group and cluster environments. Here we present recent results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO. This work has been supported by NSF grantmore »AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.« less