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  1. Abstract We use a high-precision radial velocity survey of FGKM stars to study the conditional occurrence of two classes of planets: close-in small planets (0.023–1 au, 2–30 M ⊕ ) and distant giant planets (0.23–10 au, 30–6000 M ⊕ ). We find that 41 − 13 + 15 % of systems with a close-in, small planet also host an outer giant, compared to 17.6 − 1.9 + 2.4 % for stars irrespective of small planet presence. This implies that small planet hosts may be enhanced in outer giant occurrences compared to all stars with 1.7 σ significance. Conversely, we estimate that 42 − 13 + 17 % of cold giant hosts also host an inner small planet, compared to 27.6 − 4.8 + 5.8 % of stars irrespective of cold giant presence. We also find that more massive and close-in giant planets are not associated with small inner planets. Specifically, our sample indicates that small planets are less likely to have outer giant companions more massive than approximately 120 M ⊕ and within 0.3–3 au, than to have less massive or more distant giant companions, with ∼2.2 σ confidence. This implies that massive gas giants within 0.3–3 au may suppressmore »inner small planet formation. Additionally, we compare the host-star metallicity distributions for systems with only small planets and those with both small planets and cold giants. In agreement with previous studies, we find that stars in our survey that only host small planets have a metallicity distribution that is consistent with the broader solar-metallicity-median sample, while stars that host both small planets and gas giants are distinctly metal rich with ∼2.3 σ confidence.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 17, 2023
  2. Abstract

    The detection of satellites around extrasolar planets, so called exomoons, remains a largely unexplored territory. In this work, we study the potential of detecting these elusive objects from radial velocity monitoring of self-luminous, directly imaged planets. This technique is now possible thanks to the development of dedicated instruments combining the power of high-resolution spectroscopy and high-contrast imaging. First, we demonstrate a sensitivity to satellites with a mass ratio of 1%–4% at separations similar to the Galilean moons from observations of a brown-dwarf companion (HR 7672 B;Kmag= 13; 0.″7 separation) with the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer (R∼ 35,000 in theKband) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Current instrumentation is therefore already sensitive to large unresolved satellites that could be forming from gravitational instability akin to binary star formation. Using end-to-end simulations, we then estimate that future instruments such as the Multi-Object Diffraction-limited High-resolution Infrared Spectrograph, planned for the Thirty Meter Telescope, should be sensitive to satellites with mass ratios of ∼10−4. Such small moons would likely form in a circumplanetary disk similar to the Jovian satellites in the solar system. Looking for the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect could also be an interesting pathway to detecting the smallest moons on short orbitalmore »periods. Future exomoon discoveries will allow precise mass measurements of the substellar companions that they orbit and provide key insight into the formation of exoplanets. They would also help constrain the population of habitable Earth-sized moons orbiting gas giants in the habitable zone of their stars.

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  3. Abstract We combine multiple campaigns of K2 photometry with precision radial velocity measurements from Keck-HIRES to measure the masses of three sub-Neptune-sized planets. We confirm the planetary nature of the massive sub-Neptune K2-182 b ( P b = 4.7 days, R b = 2.69 R ⊕ ) and derive refined parameters for K2-199 b and c ( P b = 3.2 days, R b = 1.73 R ⊕ and P c = 7.4 days, R c = 2.85 R ⊕ ). These planets provide valuable data points in the mass–radius plane, especially as TESS continues to reveal an increasingly diverse sample of sub-Neptunes. The moderately bright ( V = 12.0 mag) early K dwarf K2-182 (EPIC 211359660) was observed during K2 campaigns 5 and 18. We find that K2-182 b is potentially one of the densest sub-Neptunes known to date (20 ± 5 M ⊕ and 5.6 ± 1.4 g cm −3 ). The K5V dwarf K2-199 (EPIC 212779596; V = 12.3 mag), observed in K2 campaigns 6 and 17, hosts two recently confirmed planets. We refine the orbital and planetary parameters for K2-199 b and c by modeling both campaigns of K2 photometry and adding 12 Keck-HIRES measurements tomore »the existing radial velocity data set ( N = 33). We find that K2-199 b is likely rocky, at 6.9 ± 1.8 M ⊕ and 7.2 − 2.0 + 2.1 g cm −3 , and that K2-199 c has an intermediate density at 12.4 ± 2.3 M ⊕ and 2.9 − 0.6 + 0.7 g cm −3 . We contextualize these planets on the mass–radius plane, discuss a small but intriguing population of “superdense” sub-Neptunes ( R p < 3 R ⊕ , M p >20 M ⊕ ), and consider our prospects for the planets’ atmospheric characterization.« less
  4. Abstract

    We present the Distant Giants Survey, a three-year radial velocity campaign to measure P(DG∣CS), the conditional occurrence of distant giant planets (DG;Mp∼ 0.3–13MJ,P> 1 yr) in systems hosting a close-in small planet (CS;Rp< 10R). For the past two years, we have monitored 47 Sun-like stars hosting small transiting planets detected by TESS. We present the selection criteria used to assemble our sample and report the discovery of two distant giant planets, TOI-1669 b and TOI-1694 c. For TOI-1669 b we find thatMsini=0.573±0.074MJ,P= 502 ± 16 days, ande< 0.27, while for TOI-1694 c,Msini=1.05±0.05MJ,P= 389.2 ± 3.9 days, ande= 0.18 ± 0.05. We also confirmed the 3.8 days transiting planet TOI-1694 b by measuring a true mass ofM= 26.1 ± 2.2M. At the end of the Distant Giants Survey, we will incorporate TOI-1669 b and TOI-1694 c into our calculation of P(DG∣CS), a crucial statistic for understanding the relationship between outer giants and small inner companions.

  5. Abstract The Kepler and TESS missions have demonstrated that planets are ubiquitous. However, the success of these missions heavily depends on ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys, which combined with transit photometry can yield bulk densities and orbital properties. While most Kepler host stars are too faint for detailed follow-up observations, TESS is detecting planets orbiting nearby bright stars that are more amenable to RV characterization. Here, we introduce the TESS-Keck Survey (TKS), an RV program using ∼100 nights on Keck/HIRES to study exoplanets identified by TESS. The primary survey aims are investigating the link between stellar properties and the compositions of small planets; studying how the diversity of system architectures depends on dynamical configurations or planet multiplicity; identifying prime candidates for atmospheric studies with JWST; and understanding the role of stellar evolution in shaping planetary systems. We present a fully automated target selection algorithm, which yielded 103 planets in 86 systems for the final TKS sample. Most TKS hosts are inactive, solar-like, main-sequence stars (4500 K ≤ T eff <6000 K) at a wide range of metallicities. The selected TKS sample contains 71 small planets ( R p ≤ 4 R ⊕ ), 11 systems with multiple transiting candidates, sixmore »sub-day-period planets and three planets that are in or near the habitable zone ( S inc ≤ 10 S ⊕ ) of their host star. The target selection described here will facilitate the comparison of measured planet masses, densities, and eccentricities to predictions from planet population models. Our target selection software is publicly available and can be adapted for any survey that requires a balance of multiple science interests within a given telescope allocation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2023