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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    A long-standing problem in mathematical physics is the rigorous derivation of the incompressible Euler equation from Newtonian mechanics. Recently, Han-Kwan and Iacobelli (Proc Am Math Soc 149:3045–3061, 2021) showed that in the monokinetic regime, one can directly obtain the Euler equation from a system ofNparticles interacting in$${\mathbb {T}}^d$$Td,$$d\ge 2$$d2, via Newton’s second law through asupercritical mean-field limit. Namely, the coupling constant$$\lambda $$λin front of the pair potential, which is Coulombic, scales like$$N^{-\theta }$$N-θfor some$$\theta \in (0,1)$$θ(0,1), in contrast to the usual mean-field scaling$$\lambda \sim N^{-1}$$λN-1. Assuming$$\theta \in (1-\frac{2}{d(d+1)},1)$$θ(1-2d(d+1),1), they showed that the empirical measure of the system is effectively described by the solution to the Euler equation as$$N\rightarrow \infty $$N. Han-Kwan and Iacobelli asked if their range for$$\theta $$θwas optimal. We answer this question in the negative by showing the validity of the incompressible Euler equation in the limit$$N\rightarrow \infty $$Nfor$$\theta \in (1-\frac{2}{d},1)$$θ(1-2d,1). Our proof is based on Serfaty’s modulated-energy method, but compared to that of Han-Kwan and Iacobelli, crucially uses an improved “renormalized commutator” estimate to obtain the larger range for$$\theta $$θ. Additionally, we show that for$$\theta \le 1-\frac{2}{d}$$θ1-2d, one cannot, in general, expect convergence in the modulated energy notion of distance.

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  3. Abstract

    Aggregation equations, such as the parabolic-elliptic Patlak–Keller–Segel model, are known to have an optimal threshold for global existence versus finite-time blow-up. In particular, if the diffusion is absent, then all smooth solutions with finite second moment can exist only locally in time. Nevertheless, one can ask whether global existence can be restored by adding a suitable noise to the equation, so that the dynamics are now stochastic. Inspired by the work of Buckmaster et al. (Int Math Res Not IMRN 23:9370–9385, 2020) showing that, with high probability, the inviscid SQG equation with random diffusion has global classical solutions, we investigate whether suitable random diffusion can restore global existence for a large class of active scalar equations in arbitrary dimension with possibly singular velocity fields. This class includes Hamiltonian flows, such as the SQG equation and its generalizations, and gradient flows, such as those arising in aggregation models. For this class, we show global existence of solutions in Gevrey-type Fourier–Lebesgue spaces with quantifiable high probability.

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  4. We consider the well-known Lieb-Liniger (LL) model for \begin{document}$ N $\end{document} bosons interacting pairwise on the line via the \begin{document}$ \delta $\end{document} potential in the mean-field scaling regime. Assuming suitable asymptotic factorization of the initial wave functions and convergence of the microscopic energy per particle, we show that the time-dependent reduced density matrices of the system converge in trace norm to the pure states given by the solution to the one-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) with an explict rate of convergence. In contrast to previous work [3] relying on the formalism of second quantization and coherent states and without an explicit rate, our proof is based on the counting method of Pickl [65,66,67] and Knowles and Pickl [44]. To overcome difficulties stemming from the singularity of the \begin{document}$ \delta $\end{document} potential, we introduce a new short-range approximation argument that exploits the Hölder continuity of the \begin{document}$ N $\end{document}-body wave function in a single particle variable. By further exploiting the \begin{document}$ L^2 $\end{document}-subcritical well-posedness theory for the 1D cubic NLS, we can prove mean-field convergence when the limiting solution to the NLS has finite mass, but only for a very special class of \begin{document}$ N $\end{document}-body initial states.

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