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  1. To enable trust in the IC supply chain, logic locking as an IP protection technique received significant attention in recent years. Over the years, by utilizing Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solver and its derivations, many de-obfuscation attacks have undermined the security of logic locking. Nonetheless, all these attacks receive the inputs (locked circuits) in a very simplified format (Bench or remapped and translated Verilog) with many limitations. This raises the bar for the usage of the existing attacks for modeling and assessing new logic locking techniques, forcing the designers to undergo many troublesome translations and simplifications. This paper introduces the RANE Attack, an open-source CAD-based toolbox for evaluating the security of logic locking mechanisms that implement a unique interface to use formal verification tools without a need for any translation or simplification. The RANE attack not only performs better compared to the existing de-obfuscation attacks, but it can also receive the library-dependent logic-locked circuits with no limitation in written, elaborated, or synthesized standard HDL, such as Verilog. We evaluated the capability/performance of RANE on FOUR case studies, one is the first de-obfuscation attack model on FSM locking solutions (e.g., HARPOON) in which the key is not a static bit-vector but a sequence of input patterns. 
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    The resource-constrained nature of the Internet of Things (IoT) edges, poses a challenge in designing a secure and high-performance communication for this family of devices. Although side-channel resistant ciphers (either block or stream) could guarantee the security of the communication, the energy intensive nature of these ciphers makes them undesirable for lightweight IoT solutions. In this paper, we introduce ExTru, an encrypted communication protocol based on stream ciphers that adds a configurable switching & toggling network (CSTN) to not only boost the performance of the communication in these devices, it also consumes far less energy than the conventional side-channel resistant ciphers. Although the overall structure of the proposed scheme is leaky against physical attacks, we introduce a dynamic encryption mechanism that removes this vulnerability. We demonstrate how each communicated message in the proposed scheme reduces the level of trust. Accordingly, since a specific number of messages, N, could break the communication and extract the key, by using the dynamic encryption mechanism, ExTru can re-initiate the level of trust periodically after T messages where T <; N, to protect the communication against side-channel and scan-based attacks (e.g. SAT attack). Furthermore, we demonstrate that by properly configuring the value of T, ExTru not only increases the strength of security from per “device” to per “message”, it also significantly improves energy saving as well as throughput vs. an architecture that only uses a conventional side-channel resistant block/stream cipher. 
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  4. Abstract—In this paper, we introduce DFSSD, a novel logic locking solution for sequential and FSM circuits with a restricted (locked) access to the scan chain. DFSSD combines two techniques for obfuscation: (1) Deep Faults, and (2) Shallow State Duality. Both techniques are specifically designed to resist against sequential SAT attacks based on bounded model checking. The shallow state duality prevents a sequential SAT attack from taking a shortcut for early termination without running an exhaustive unbounded model checker to assess if the attack could be terminated. The deep fault, on the other hand, provides a designer with a technique for building deep, yet key recoverable faults that could not be discovered by sequential SAT (and bounded model checker based) attacks in a reasonable time. 
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  5. In this paper, we claim that cyclic obfuscation, when properly implemented, poses exponential complexity on SAT or CycSAT attack. The CycSAT, in order to generate the necessary cycle avoidance clauses, uses a pre-processing step. We show that this pre-processing step has to compose its cycle avoidance condition on all cycles in a netlist, otherwise, a missing cycle could trap the SAT solver in an infinite loop or force it to return an incorrect key. Then, we propose several techniques by which the number of cycles is exponentially increased with respect to the number of inserted feedbacks. We further illustrate that when the number of feedbacks is increased, the pre-processing step of CycSAT faces an exponential increase in complexity and runtime, preventing the correct composition of loop avoidance clauses in a reasonable time before invoking the SAT solver. On the other hand, if the pre-processing is not completed properly, the SAT solver will get stuck or return incorrect key. Hence, when the cyclic obfuscation in accordance to the conditions proposed in this paper is implemented, it would impose an exponential complexity with respect to the number of inserted feedback, even when the CycSAT solution is used. 
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  6. In this paper, we investigate the strength of six different SAT solvers in attacking various obfuscation schemes. Our investigation revealed that Glucose and Lingeling SAT solvers are generally suited for attacking small-to-midsize obfuscated circuits, while the MapleGlucose, if the system is not memory bound, is best suited for attacking mid-to-difficult obfuscation methods. Our experimental result indicates that when dealing with extremely large circuits and very difficult oufuscation problems, the SAT solver may be memory bound, and Lingeling, for having the most memory efficient implementation, is the best suited solver for such problems. Additionally, our investigation revealed that SAT solver execution times may vary widely across different SAT solvers. Hence, when testing the hardness of an obfuscation methods, although the increase in difficulty could be verified by one SAT solver, the pace of increase in difficulty is dependent on the choice of a SAT solver. 
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  7. In this paper, we claim that cyclic obfuscation, when properly implemented, poses exponential complexity on SAT or CycSAT attack. The CycSAT, in order to generate the necessary cycle avoidance clauses, uses a pre-processing step. We show that this pre-processing step has to compose its cycle avoidance condition on all cycles in a netlist, otherwise, a missing cycle could trap the SAT solver in an infinite loop or force it to return an incorrect key. Then, we propose several techniques by which the number of cycles is exponentially increased with respect to the number of inserted feedbacks. We further illustrate that when the number of feedbacks is increased, the pre-processing step of CycSAT faces an exponential increase in complexity and runtime, preventing the correct composition of loop avoidance clauses in a reasonable time before invoking the SAT solver. On the other hand, if the pre-processing is not completed properly, the SAT solver will get stuck or return incorrect key. Hence, when the cyclic obfuscation in accordance to the conditions proposed in this paper is implemented, it would impose an exponential complexity with respect to the number of inserted feedback, even when the CycSAT solution is used. 
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