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  1. Abstract

    We present a set of six general relativistic, multifrequency, radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of thin accretion disks with different target mass accretion rates around black holes with spins ranging from nonrotating to rapidly spinning. The simulations use theM1closure scheme with 12 independent frequency (or energy) bins ranging logarithmically from 5 × 10−3keV to 5 × 103keV. The multifrequency capability allows us to generate crude spectra and energy-dependent light curves directly from the simulations without a need for special postprocessing. While we generally find roughly thermal spectra with peaks around 1–4 keV, our high-spin cases showed harder-than-expected tails for the soft or thermally dominant state. This leads to radiative efficiencies that are up to five times higher than expected for a Novikov–Thorne disk at the same spin. We attribute these high efficiencies to the high-energy, coronal emission. These coronae mostly occupy the effectively optically thin regions near the inner edges of the disks and also cover or sandwich the inner ∼15GM/c2of the disks.

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  2. Abstract

    We study the initiation of thermonuclear detonations in tidally disrupted white dwarf stars by intermediate-mass (103M) black holes. The length scales required to resolve the initiation mechanism are not easily reached in 3D, so instead we have devised 2D proxy models, which, together with a logarithmic gridding strategy, can adequately capture detonation wave fronts as material undergoes simultaneous compression and stretching from tidal forces. We consider 0.15 and 0.6Mwhite dwarf stars parameterized by tidal strengths in the rangeβ= 4–23. High spatial resolution elucidates the manner and conditions leading to thermonuclear detonation, linking the initiation sequence to stellar composition and tidal strength. All of our models suffer sustained detonations triggered by a combination of adiabatic compression, mild thermonuclear preconditioning, and collisional heating, in degrees depending primarily on tidal strength. We find that many diagnostics, such as temperature, total released energy, and iron-group products, are fairly well converged (better than 10%) at resolutions below 10 km along the scale height of the orbital plane. The exceptions are intermediate-mass transients like calcium, which remain uncertain up to factors of 2, even at 1 km resolution.

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  3. Abstract

    The ∼100 tidal disruption events (TDEs) observed so far exhibit a wide range of emission properties both at peak and over their lifetimes. Some TDEs radiate predominantly at X-ray energies, while others radiate chiefly at UV and optical wavelengths. While the peak luminosities across TDEs show distinct properties, the evolutionary behavior can also vary between TDEs with similar peak emission properties. In particular, for optical TDEs, while their UV and optical emissions decline somewhat following the fallback pattern, some events can greatly rebrighten in X-rays at late time. In this Letter, we conduct three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of TDE accretion disks at varying accretion rates in the regime of super-Eddington accretion. We make use of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations to calculate the reprocessed spectra at various inclinations and at different evolutionary stages. We confirm the unified model proposed by Dai et al., which predicts that the observed emission largely depends on the viewing angle of the observer with respect to the disk orientation. Furthermore, we find that disks with higher accretion rates have elevated wind and disk densities, which increases the reprocessing of the high-energy radiation and thus generally augments the optical-to-X-ray flux ratio along a particular viewing angle. This implies that at later times, as the accretion level declines, we expect that more X-rays will leak out along intermediate viewing angles. Such dynamical model for TDEs can provide a natural explanation for the diversity in the emission properties observed in TDEs at peak and along their temporal evolution.

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