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    We examine the properties of ∼50 000 rotational variables from the ASAS-SN survey using distances, stellar properties, and probes of binarity from Gaia DR3 and the SDSS APOGEE survey. They have higher amplitudes and span a broader period range than previously studied Kepler rotators. We find they divide into three groups of main sequence stars (MS1, MS2s, MS2b) and four of giants (G1/3, G2, G4s, and G4b). MS1 stars are slowly rotating (10–30 d), likely single stars with a limited range of temperatures. MS2s stars are more rapidly rotating (days) single stars spanning the lower main sequence up to the Kraft break. There is a clear period gap (or minimum) between MS1 and MS2s, similar to that seen for lower temperatures in the Kepler samples. MS2b stars are tidally locked binaries with periods of days. G1/3 stars are heavily spotted, tidally locked RS CVn stars with periods of 10s of days. G2 stars are less luminous, heavily spotted, tidally locked sub-subgiants with periods of ∼10 d. G4s stars have intermediate luminosities to G1/3 and G2, slow rotation periods (approaching 100 d), and are almost certainly all merger remnants. G4b stars have similar rotation periods and luminosities to G4s, but consist of sub-synchronously rotating binaries. We see no difference in indicators for the presence of very wide binary companions between any of these groups and control samples of photometric twin stars built for each group.

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    Masses and radii of stars can be derived by combining eclipsing binary light curves with spectroscopic orbits. In our previous work, we modelled the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) light curves of more than 30 000 detached eclipsing binaries using phoebe. Here, we combine our results with 128 double-lined spectroscopic orbits from Gaia Data Release 3. We also visually inspect ASAS-SN light curves of the Gaia double-lined spectroscopic binaries on the lower main sequence and the giant branch, adding 11 binaries to our sample. We find that only 50 per cent of systems have Gaia periods and eccentricities consistent with the ASAS-SN values. We use emcee and phoebe to determine masses and radii for a total of 122 stars with median fractional uncertainties of 7.9 per cent and 6.3 per cent, respectively.

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    Detached eclipsing binaries are a fundamental tool for measuring the physical parameters of stars that are effectively evolving in isolation. Starting from more than 40 000 eclipsing binary candidates identified by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), we use PHOEBE to determine the sum of the fractional radii, the ratio of effective temperatures, the inclinations, and the eccentricities for 35 576 systems. We visually inspect all the light-curve models to verify the model fits and examine the TESS light curves, when available, to select systems with evidence for additional physics, such as spots, mass transfer, and hierarchical triples. We examine the distributions of the eclipsing binary model parameters and the orbital parameters. We identify two groups in the sum of the fractional radii and effective temperature ratio parameter space that may distinguish systems approaching the semidetached limit. Combining Gaia EDR3 with extinction estimates from three-dimensional dust maps, we examine the properties of the systems as a function of their absolute magnitude and evolutionary state. Finally, we present light curves of selected eclipsing binaries that may be of interest for follow-up studies.

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  4. ABSTRACT The majority of non-merging stellar mass black holes are discovered by observing high energy emission from accretion processes. Here, we pursue the large, but still mostly unstudied population of non-interacting black holes and neutron stars by searching for the tidally induced ellipsoidal variability of their stellar companions. We start from a sample of about 200 000 rotational variables, semiregular variables, and eclipsing binary stars from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae. We use a χ2 ratio test followed by visual inspection to identify 369 candidates for ellipsoidal variability. We also discuss how to combine the amplitude of the variability with mass and radius estimates for observed stars to calculate a minimum companion mass, identifying the most promising candidates for high mass companions. 
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    ABSTRACT We report the discovery of the closest known black hole candidate as a binary companion to V723 Mon. V723 Mon is a nearby ($d\sim 460\, \rm pc$), bright (V ≃ 8.3 mag), evolved (Teff, giant ≃ 4440 K, and Lgiant ≃ 173 L⊙) red giant in a high mass function, f(M) = 1.72 ± 0.01 M⊙, nearly circular binary (P = 59.9 d, e ≃ 0). V723 Mon is a known variable star, previously classified as an eclipsing binary, but its All-Sky Automated Survey, Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope, and Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite light curves are those of a nearly edge-on ellipsoidal variable. Detailed models of the light curves constrained by the period, radial velocities, and stellar temperature give an inclination of $87.0^{\circ ^{+1.7^\circ }}_{-1.4^\circ }$, a mass ratio of q ≃ 0.33 ± 0.02, a companion mass of Mcomp = 3.04 ± 0.06 M⊙, a stellar radius of Rgiant = 24.9 ± 0.7 R⊙, and a giant mass of Mgiant = 1.00 ± 0.07 M⊙. We identify a likely non-stellar, diffuse veiling component with contributions in the B and V band of ${\sim }63{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ and ${\sim }24{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, respectively. The SED and the absence of continuum eclipses imply that the companion mass must be dominated by a compact object. We do observe eclipses of the Balmer lines when the dark companion passes behind the giant, but their velocity spreads are low compared to observed accretion discs. The X-ray luminosity of the system is $L_{\rm X}\simeq 7.6\times 10^{29}~\rm ergs~s^{-1}$, corresponding to L/Ledd ∼ 10−9. The simplest explanation for the massive companion is a single compact object, most likely a black hole in the ‘mass gap’. 
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