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  1. Abstract The role of differential advection in creating tropopause folds and strong constituent gradients near midlatitude westerly jets is investigated using the University of Wisconsin Non-hydrostatic Modeling System (UWNMS). Dynamical structures are compared with aircraft observations through a fold and subpolar jet (SPJ) during RF04 of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START08) campaign. The observed distribution of water vapor and ozone during RF04 provides evidence of rapid transport in the SPJ, enhancing constituent gradients above relative to below the intrusion. The creation of a tropopause fold by quasi-isentropic differential advection on the upstream side of the trough is described. This fold was created by a southward jet streak in the SPJ, where upper tropospheric air displaced the tropopause eastward in the 6-10 km layer, thereby overlying stratospheric air in the 3-6 km layer. The subsequent superposition of the subtropical and subpolar jets is also shown to result from quasi-isentropic differential advection. The occurrence of low values of ozone, water vapor, and potential vorticity on the equatorward side of the SPJ can be explained by convective transport of low-ozone air from the boundary layer, dehydration in the updraft, and detrainment of inertially-unstable air in the outflow layer. An example of rapid juxtaposition with stratospheric air in the jet core is shown for RF01. The net effect of upstream convective events is suggested as a fundamental cause of the strong constituent gradients observed in midlatitude jets. Idealized diagrams illustrate the role of differential advection in creating tropopause folds and constituent gradient enhancement. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The stalling and rapid destruction of a potential vorticity (PV) anomaly in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS) by convectively detrained inertially unstable air is described. On 20 August 2018, 10–15 in. (~0.3–0.4 m) of rain fell on western Dane County, Wisconsin, primarily during 0100–0300 UTC 21 August (1900–2100 CDT 20 August), leading to extreme local flooding. Dynamical aspects are investigated using the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostratic Modeling System (UWNMS). Results are compared with available radiosonde, radar, total rainfall estimates, satellite infrared, and high-resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses. Using ECMWF analyses, the formation of the UTLS PV anomaly is traced to its origin a week earlier in a PV streamer over the west coast of North America. The rainfall maximum over southern Wisconsin was associated with this PV anomaly, whereby convection forming in the warm-upglide sector rotated cyclonically into the region. The quasi-stationarity of this rainfall feature was aided by a broad northeastward surge of inertially unstable convective outflow air into southeastern Wisconsin, which coincided with stalling of the eastward progression of the PV anomaly and its diversion into southern Wisconsin, extending heavy rainfall for several hours. Cessation of rainfall coincided with dilution of the PV maximum in less than an hour (2100–2200 CDT), associated with the arrival of negative PV in the upper troposphere. The region of negative PV was created when convection over Illinois transported air with low wind speed into northeastward shear. This feature is diagnosed using the convective momentum transport hypothesis. 
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