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  1. Abstract

    Using cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations, we explore the properties of subhalos in Milky Way analogs that contain a subcomponent of atomic dark matter (ADM). ADM differs from cold dark matter (CDM) due to the presence of self-interactions that lead to energy dissipation, analogous to standard model baryons. This model can arise in dark sectors that are natural and theoretically motivated extensions to the standard model. The simulations used in this work were carried out usingGIZMOand utilize the FIRE-2 galaxy formation physics in the standard model baryonic sector. For the parameter points we consider, the ADM gas cools efficiently, allowing it to collapse to the center of subhalos. This increases a subhalo’s central density and affects its orbit, with more subhalos surviving small pericentric passages. The subset of subhalos that host satellite galaxies have cuspier density profiles and smaller stellar half-mass radii relative to CDM. The entire population of dwarf galaxies produced in the ADM simulations is more compact than those seen in CDM simulations, unable to reproduce the entire diversity of observed dwarf galaxy structures. Additionally, we also identify a population of highly compact subhalos that consist nearly entirely of ADM and form in the central region of the host, where they can leave distinctive imprints in the baryonic disk. This work presents the first detailed exploration of subhalo properties in a strongly dissipative dark matter scenario, providing intuition for how other regions of ADM parameter space, as well as other dark sector models, would impact galactic-scale observables.

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  2. With the increase of uncertain and intermittent renewable energy supply on the grid, the power system has become more vulnerable to instability. In this paper, we develop a demand response strategy to improve power system small-signal stability. We pose the problem as an optimization problem wherein the total demand-responsive load is held constant at each time instance but shifted between different buses to improve small-signal stability, which is measured by small-signal stability metrics that are functions of subsets of the system’s eigenvalues, such as the smallest damping ratio. To solve the problem, we use iterative linear programming and generalized eigenvalue sensitivities. We demonstrate the approach via a case study that uses the IEEE 14-bus system. Our results show that shifting the load between buses, can improve a small-signal stability margin. We explore the use of models of different fidelity and find that it is important to include models of the automatic voltage regulators and power system stabilizers. In addition, we show that load shifting can achieve similar improvements to generation shifting and better improvement than simply tuning power system stabilizers. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Dark sector theories naturally lead to multicomponent scenarios for dark matter where a subcomponent can dissipate energy through self-interactions, allowing it to efficiently cool inside galaxies. We present the first cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way analogs where the majority of dark matter is collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) but a subcomponent (6%) is strongly dissipative minimal atomic dark matter (ADM). The simulations, implemented inGIZMOand utilizing FIRE-2 galaxy formation physics to model the standard baryonic sector, demonstrate that the addition of even a small fraction of dissipative dark matter can significantly impact galactic evolution despite being consistent with current cosmological constraints. We show that ADM gas with roughly standard model–like masses and couplings can cool to form a rotating “dark disk” with angular momentum closely aligned with the visible stellar disk. The morphology of the disk depends sensitively on the parameters of the ADM model, which affect the cooling rates in the dark sector. The majority of the ADM gas gravitationally collapses into dark “clumps” (regions of black hole or mirror star formation), which form a prominent bulge and a rotating thick disk in the central galaxy. These clumps form early and quickly sink to the inner ∼kiloparsec of the galaxy, affecting the galaxy’s star formation history and present-day baryonic and CDM distributions.

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