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Interval scheduling is a basic problem in the theory of algorithms and a classical task in combinatorial optimization. We develop a set of techniques for partitioning and grouping jobs based on their starting and ending times, that enable us to view an instance of interval scheduling on many jobs as a union of multiple interval scheduling instances, each containing only a few jobs. Instantiating these techniques in dynamic and local settings of computation leads to several new results. For (1+ε)approximation of job scheduling of n jobs on a single machine, we develop a fully dynamic algorithm with O((log n)/ε) update and O(log n) query worstcase time. Further, we design a local computation algorithm that uses only O((log N)/ε) queries when all jobs are length at least 1 and have starting/ending times within [0,N]. Our techniques are also applicable in a setting where jobs have rewards/weights. For this case we design a fully dynamic deterministic algorithm whose worstcase update and query time are poly(log n,1/ε). Equivalently, this is the first algorithm that maintains a (1+ε)approximation of the maximum independent set of a collection of weighted intervals in poly(log n,1/ε) time updates/queries. This is an exponential improvement in 1/ε over the running time of a randomized algorithm of Henzinger, Neumann, and Wiese [SoCG, 2020], while also removing all dependence on the values of the jobs' starting/ending times and rewards, as well as removing the need for any randomness. We also extend our approaches for interval scheduling on a single machine to examine the setting with M machines.more » « less

Understanding the shape of a distribution of data is of interest to people in a great variety of fields, as it may affect the types of algorithms used for that data. We study one such problem in the framework of {\em distribution property testing}, characterizing the number of samples required to to distinguish whether a distribution has a certain property or is far from having that property. In particular, given samples from a distribution, we seek to characterize the tail of the distribution, that is, understand how many elements appear infrequently. We develop an algorithm based on a careful bucketing scheme that distinguishes lighttailed distributions from nonlighttailed ones with respect to a definition based on the hazard rate, under natural smoothness and ordering assumptions. We bound the number of samples required for this test to succeed with high probability in terms of the parameters of the problem, showing that it is polynomial in these parameters. Further, we prove a hardness result that implies that this problem cannot be solved without any assumptions.more » « less

For a graph G on n vertices, naively sampling the position of a random walk of at time t requires work Ω(t). We desire local access algorithms supporting positionG(t) queries, which return the position of a random walk from some fixed start vertex s at time t, where the joint distribution of returned positions is 1/ poly(n) close to those of a uniformly random walk in ℓ1 distance. We first give an algorithm for local access to random walks on a given undirected dregular graph with eO( 1 1−λ √ n) runtime per query, where λ is the secondlargest eigenvalue of the random walk matrix of the graph in absolute value. Since random dregular graphs G(n, d) are expanders with high probability, this gives an eO(√ n) algorithm for a graph drawn from G(n, d) whp, which improves on the naive method for small numbers of queries. We then prove that no algorithm with subconstant error given probe access to an input dregular graph can have runtime better than Ω(√ n/ log(n)) per query in expectation when the input graph is drawn from G(n, d), obtaining a nearly matching lower bound. We further show an Ω(n1/4) runtime per query lower bound even with an oblivious adversary (i.e. when the query sequence is fixed in advance). We then show that for families of graphs with additional group theoretic structure, dramatically better results can be achieved. We give local access to walks on smalldegree abelian Cayley graphs, including cycles and hypercubes, with runtime polylog(n) per query. This also allows for efficient local access to walks on polylog degree expanders. We show that our techniques apply to graphs with high degree by extending or results to graphs constructed using the tensor product (giving fast local access to walks on degree nϵ graphs for any ϵ ∈ (0, 1]) and Cartesian product.more » « less

We consider online algorithms for the page migration problem that use predictions, potentially imperfect, to improve their performance. The best known online algorithms for this problem, due to Westbrook’94 and Bienkowski et al’17, have competitive ratios strictly bounded away from 1. In contrast, we show that if the algorithm is given a prediction of the input sequence, then it can achieve a competitive ratio that tends to 1 as the prediction error rate tends to 0. Specifically, the competitive ratio is equal to 1+O(q), where q is the prediction error rate. We also design a “fallback option” that ensures that the competitive ratio of the algorithm for any input sequence is at most O(1/q). Our result adds to the recent body of work that uses machine learning to improve the performance of “classic” algorithms.more » « less

We propose datadriven onepass streaming algorithms for estimating the number of triangles and four cycles, two fundamental problems in graph analytics that are widely studied in the graph data stream literature. Recently, Hsu et al. (2019a) and Jiang et al. (2020) applied machine learning techniques in other data stream problems, using a trained oracle that can predict certain properties of the stream elements to improve on prior “classical” algorithms that did not use oracles. In this paper, we explore the power of a “heavy edge” oracle in multiple graph edge streaming models. In the adjacency list model, we present a onepass triangle counting algorithm improving upon the previous space upper bounds without such an oracle. In the arbitrary order model, we present algorithms for both triangle and four cycle estimation with fewer passes and the same space complexity as in previous algorithms, and we show several of these bounds are optimal. We analyze our algorithms under several noise models, showing that the algorithms perform well even when the oracle errs. Our methodology expands upon prior work on “classical” streaming algorithms, as previous multipass and random order streaming algorithms can be seen as special cases of our algorithms, where the first pass or random order was used to implement the heavy edge oracle. Lastly, our experiments demonstrate advantages of the proposed method compared to stateoftheart streaming algorithms.more » « less

We present a sublinear time algorithm that allows one to sample multiple edges from a distribution that is pointwise ϵclose to the uniform distribution, in an amortizedefficient fashion. We consider the adjacency list query model, where access to a graph G is given via degree and neighbor queries. The problem of sampling a single edge in this model has been raised by Eden and Rosenbaum (SOSA 18). Let n and m denote the number of vertices and edges of G, respectively. Eden and Rosenbaum provided upper and lower bounds of Θ∗(n/ √ m) for sampling a single edge in general graphs (where O ∗(·) suppresses poly(1/ϵ) and poly(log n) dependencies). We ask whether the query complexity lower bound for sampling a single edge can be circumvented when multiple samples are required. That is, can we get an improved amortized persample cost if we allow a preprocessing phase? We answer in the affirmative. We present an algorithm that, if one knows the number of required samples q in advance, has an overall cost that is sublinear in q, namely, O∗(√ q · (n/ √ m)), which is strictly preferable to O∗(q · (n/ √ m)) cost resulting from q invocations of the algorithm by Eden and Rosenbaum. Subsequent to a preliminary version of this work, Tětek and Thorup (arXiv, preprint) proved that this bound is essentially optimal.more » « less

We consider the problem of sampling and approximately counting an arbitrary given motif H in a graph G, where access to G is given via queries: degree, neighbor, and pair, as well as uniform edge sample queries. Previous algorithms for these tasks were based on a decomposition of H into a collection of odd cycles and stars, denoted D^*(H) = {O_{k₁},...,O_{k_q}, S_{p₁},...,S_{p_𝓁}}. These algorithms were shown to be optimal for the case where H is a clique or an oddlength cycle, but no other lower bounds were known. We present a new algorithm for sampling arbitrary motifs which, up to poly(log n) factors, is always at least as good, and for most graphs G is strictly better. The main ingredient leading to this improvement is an improved uniform algorithm for sampling stars, which might be of independent interest, as it allows to sample vertices according to the pth moment of the degree distribution. Finally, we prove that this algorithm is decompositionoptimal for decompositions that contain at least one odd cycle. These are the first lower bounds for motifs H with a nontrivial decomposition, i.e., motifs that have more than a single component in their decomposition.more » « less

We present a sublinear time algorithm that allows one to sample multiple edges from a distribution that is pointwise εclose to the uniform distribution, in an amortizedefficient fashion. We consider the adjacency list query model, where access to a graph G is given via degree and neighbor queries. The problem of sampling a single edge in this model has been raised by Eden and Rosenbaum (SOSA 18). Let n and m denote the number of vertices and edges of G, respectively. Eden and Rosenbaum provided upper and lower bounds of Θ^*(n/√ m) for sampling a single edge in general graphs (where O^*(⋅) suppresses poly(1/ε) and poly(log n) dependencies). We ask whether the query complexity lower bound for sampling a single edge can be circumvented when multiple samples are required. That is, can we get an improved amortized persample cost if we allow a preprocessing phase? We answer in the affirmative. We present an algorithm that, if one knows the number of required samples q in advance, has an overall cost that is sublinear in q, namely, O^*(√ q ⋅(n/√ m)), which is strictly preferable to O^*(q⋅ (n/√ m)) cost resulting from q invocations of the algorithm by Eden and Rosenbaum. Subsequent to a preliminary version of this work, Tětek and Thorup (arXiv, preprint) proved that this bound is essentially optimal.more » « less

Counting and uniformly sampling motifs in a graph are fundamental algorithmic tasks with numerous applications across multiple fields. Since these problems are computationally expensive, recent efforts have focused on devising sublineartime algorithms for these problems. We consider the model where the algorithm gets a constant size motif H and query access to a graph G, where the allowed queries are degree, neighbor, and pair queries, as well as uniform edge sample queries. In the sampling task, the algorithm is required to output a uniformly distributed copy of H in G (if one exists), and in the counting task it is required to output a good estimate to the number of copies of H in G. Previous algorithms for the uniform sampling task were based on a decomposition of H into a collection of odd cycles and stars, denoted D∗(H) = {Ok1 , ...,Okq , Sp1 , ..., Spℓ19 }. These algorithms were shown to be optimal for the case where H is a clique or an oddlength cycle, but no other lower bounds were known. We present a new algorithm for sampling arbitrary motifs which, up to poly(log n) factors, for any motif H whose decomposition contains at least two components or at least one star, is always preferable. The main ingredient leading to this improvement is an improved uniform algorithm for sampling stars, which might be of independent interest, as it allows to sample vertices according to the pth moment of the degree distribution. We further show how to use our sampling algorithm to get an approximate counting algorithm, with essentially the same complexity. Finally, we prove that this algorithm is decompositionoptimal for decompositions that contain at least one odd cycle. That is, we prove that for any decomposition D that contains at least one odd cycle, there exists a motif HD 30 with decomposition D, and a family of graphs G, so that in order to output a uniform copy of H in a uniformly chosen graph in G, the number of required queries matches our upper bound. These are the first lower bounds for motifs H with a nontrivial decomposition, i.e., motifs that have more than a single component in their decomposition.more » « less

Aggregating data is fundamental to data analytics, data exploration, and OLAP. Approximate query processing (AQP) techniques are often used to accelerate computation of aggregates using samples, for which confidence intervals (CIs) are widely used to quantify the associated error. CIs used in practice fall into two categories: techniques that are tight but not correct, i.e., they yield tight intervals but only offer asymptoticguarantees,makingthem unreliable, or techniques that are correct but not tight, i.e., they offer rigorous guarantees, but are overly conservative, leading to confidence intervals that are too loose to be useful. In this paper, we develop a CI technique that is both correct and tighter than traditional approaches. Starting from conservative CIs, we identify two issues they often face: pessimistic mass allocation (PMA) and phantom outlier sensitivity (PHOS). By developing a novel rangetrimming technique for eliminating PHOS and pairing it with known CI techniques without PMA, we develop a technique for computing CIs with strong guarantees that requires fewer samples for the same width. We implement our techniques underneath a samplingoptimized inmemory column store and show how they accelerate queries involving aggregates on real datasets with typical speedups on the order of 10× over both traditional AQPwithguarantees and exact methods, all while obeying accuracy constraints.more » « less