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  1. Abstract

    We present the stellar mass–stellar metallicity relation for 3491 star-forming galaxies at 2 ≲z≲ 3 using rest-frame far-ultraviolet spectra from the LyαTomography IMACS Survey (LATIS). We fit stellar population synthesis models from the Binary Population And Spectral Synthesis code (v2.2.1) to medium-resolution (R∼ 1000) and high signal-to-noise (>30 per 100 km s−1over the wavelength range 1221–1800 Å) composite spectra of galaxies in bins of stellar mass to determine their stellar metallicity, primarily tracing Fe/H. We find a strong correlation between stellar mass and stellar metallicity, with stellar metallicity monotonically increasing with stellar mass at low masses and flattening at high masses (M*≳ 1010.3M). Additionally, we compare our stellar metallicity measurements with the gas-phase oxygen abundance of galaxies at similar redshift and estimate the average [α/Fe] ∼ 0.6. Such highα-enhancement indicates that high-redshift galaxies have not yet undergone significant iron enrichment through Type Ia supernovae. Moreover, we utilize an analytic chemical evolution model to constrain the mass loading parameter of galactic winds as a function of stellar mass. We find that as the stellar mass increases, the mass loading parameter decreases. The parameter then flattens or reaches a turning point at aroundM*∼ 1010.5M. Our findings may signal the onset of black-hole-driven outflows atz∼ 2.5 for galaxies withM*≳ 1010.5M.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We investigate the group-scale environment of 15 luminous quasars (luminosityL3000> 1046erg s−1) from the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS) at redshiftz≈ 1. Using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer integral field spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we conduct a deep galaxy redshift survey in the CUBS quasar fields to identify group members and measure the physical properties of individual galaxies and galaxy groups. We find that the CUBS quasars reside in diverse environments. The majority (11 out of 15) of the CUBS quasars reside in overdense environments with typical halo masses exceeding 1013M, while the remaining quasars reside in moderate-size galaxy groups. No correlation is observed between overdensity and redshift, black hole (BH) mass, or luminosity. Radio-loud quasars (5 out of 15 CUBS quasars) are more likely to be in overdense environments than their radio-quiet counterparts in the sample, consistent with the mean trends from previous statistical observations and clustering analyses. Nonetheless, we also observe radio-loud quasars in moderate groups and radio-quiet quasars in overdense environments, indicating a large scatter in the connection between radio properties and environment. We find that the most UV luminous quasars might be outliers in the stellar mass-to-halo mass relations or may represent departures from the standard single-epoch BH relations.

     
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  3. Abstract

    The connection between galaxies and dark matter halos is often quantified using the stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. Optical and near-infrared imaging surveys have led to a broadly consistent picture of the evolving SMHM relation based on measurements of galaxy abundances and angular correlation functions. Spectroscopic surveys atz≳ 2 can also constrain the SMHM relation via the galaxy autocorrelation function and through the cross-correlation between galaxies and Lyαabsorption measured in transverse sight lines; however, such studies are very few and have produced some unexpected or inconclusive results. We use ∼3000 spectra ofz∼ 2.5 galaxies from the LyαTomography IMACS Survey (LATIS) to measure the galaxy–galaxy and galaxy–Lyαcorrelation functions in four bins of stellar mass spanning 109.2M*/M≲ 1010.5. Parallel analyses of the MultiDarkN-body and ASTRID hydrodynamic cosmological simulations allow us to model the correlation functions, estimate covariance matrices, and infer halo masses. We find that results of the two methods are mutually consistent and broadly accord with standard SMHM relations. This consistency demonstrates that we are able to measure and model Lyαtransmission fluctuationsδFin LATIS accurately. We also show that the galaxy–Lyαcross-correlation, a free by-product of optical spectroscopic galaxy surveys at these redshifts, can constrain halo masses with similar precision to galaxy–galaxy clustering.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present the first results from Chemical Evolution Constrained Using Ionized Lines in Interstellar Aurorae (CECILIA), a Cycle 1 JWST NIRSpec/MSA program that uses ultra-deep ∼30 hr G235M/F170LP observations to target multiple electron temperature-sensitive auroral lines in the spectra of 33 galaxies atz∼ 1–3. Using a subset of 23 galaxies, we construct two ∼600 object-hour composite spectra, both with and without the stellar continuum, and use these to investigate the characteristic rest-optical (λrest≈ 5700–8500 Å) spectrum of star-forming galaxies at the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. Emission lines of eight different elements (H, He, N, O, Si, S, Ar, and Ni) are detected, with most of these features observed to be ≲3% the strength of Hα. We report the characteristic strength of three auroral features ([Nii]λ5756, [Siii]λ6313, and [Oii]λλ7322, 7332), as well as other semi-strong and faint emission lines, including forbidden [Niii]λλ7380, 7414 and permitted Oiλ8449, some of which have never before been observed outside of the local Universe. Using these measurements, we findTe[Nii] = 13,630 ± 2540 K, representing the first measurement of electron temperature using [Nii] in the high-redshift Universe. We also see evidence for broad line emission with a FWHM of536167+45km s−1; the broad component of Hαis 6.01%–28.31% the strength of the narrow component and likely arises from star-formation-driven outflows. Finally, we briefly comment on the feasibility of obtaining large samples of faint emission lines using JWST in the future.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  5. ABSTRACT

    We forecast the prospects for cross-correlating future line intensity mapping (LIM) surveys with the current and future Ly-α forest measurements. Using large cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, we model the emission from the CO rotational transition in the CO Mapping Array Project LIM experiment at the 5-yr benchmark and the Ly-α forest absorption signal for extended Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BOSS), Dark energy survey instrument (DESI), and Prime Focus multiplex Spectroscopy survey (PFS). We show that CO × Ly-α forest significantly enhances the detection signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of CO, with up to $300{{\ \rm per\, cent}}$ improvement when correlated with the PFS Ly-α forest survey and a 50–75 per cent enhancement with the available eBOSS or the upcoming DESI observations. This is competitive with even CO × spectroscopic galaxy surveys. Furthermore, our study suggests that the clustering of CO emission is tightly constrained by CO × Ly-α forest due to the increased sensitivity and the simplicity of Ly-α absorption modelling. Foreground contamination or systematics are expected not to be shared between LIM and Ly-α forest observations, providing an unbiased inference. Ly-α forest will aid in detecting the first LIM signals. We also estimate that [C ii] × Ly-α forest measurements from Experiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping and DESI/eBOSS should have a larger S/N than planned [C ii] × quasar observations by about an order of magnitude.

     
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  6. Abstract

    The resonantly scattered Lyαline illuminates the extended halos of neutral hydrogen in the circumgalactic medium of galaxies. We present integral field Keck Cosmic Web Imager observations of double-peaked, spatially extended Lyαemission in 12 relatively low-mass (M∼ 109M)z∼ 2 galaxies characterized by extreme nebular emission lines. Using individual spaxels and small bins as well as radially binned profiles of larger regions, we find that for most objects in the sample the Lyαblue-to-red peak ratio increases, the peak separation decreases, and the fraction of flux emerging at line center increases with radius. We use new radiative transfer simulations to model each galaxy with a clumpy, multiphase outflow with radially varying outflow velocity, and self-consistently apply the same velocity model to the low-ionization interstellar absorption lines. These models reproduce the trends of peak ratio, peak separation, and trough depth with radius, and broadly reconcile outflow velocities inferred from Lyαand absorption lines. The galaxies in our sample are well-described by a model in which neutral, outflowing clumps are embedded in a hotter, more highly ionized inter-clump medium (ICM), whose residual neutral content produces absorption at the systemic redshift. The peak ratio, peak separation, and trough flux fraction are primarily governed by the line-of-sight component of the outflow velocity, the Hicolumn density, and the residual neutral density in the ICM respectively. The azimuthal asymmetries in the line profile further suggest nonradial gas motions at large radii and variations in the Hicolumn density in the outer halos.

     
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  7. ABSTRACT

    The connection between the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (fesc) and the properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass ($\rm M_{\rm *}$), age, star-formation rate (SFR), and dust content, are key inputs for reionization models, but many of these relationships remain untested at high redshift. We present an analysis of a sample of 96 $z$ ∼ 3 galaxies from the Keck Lyman Continuum Spectroscopic Survey (KLCS). These galaxies have both sensitive Keck/LRIS spectroscopic measurements of the Lyman continuum (LyC) region, and multiband photometry that places constraints on stellar population parameters. We construct composite spectra from subsamples binned as a function of galaxy property and quantify the ionizing-photon escape for each composite. We find a significant anti-correlation between fesc and $\rm M_{\rm *}$, consistent with predictions from cosmological zoom-in simulations. We also find significant anti-correlation between fesc and E(B−V), encoding the underlying physics of LyC escape in our sample. We also find no significant correlation between fesc and either stellar age or specific SFR (= SFR/$\rm M_{\rm *}$), challenging interpretations that synchronize recent star formation and favorable conditions for ionizing escape. The galaxy properties now shown to correlate with fesc in the KLCS are Lyα equivalent width, UV Luminosity, $\rm M_{\rm *}$, SFR, and E(B−V), but not age or sSFR. This comprehensive analysis of galaxy properties and LyC escape at high redshift will be used to guide future models and observations of the reionization epoch.

     
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  8. Abstract

    This paper reports the first measurement of the relationship between turbulent velocity and cloud size in the diffuse circumgalactic medium (CGM) in typical galaxy halos at redshiftz≈ 0.4–1. Through spectrally resolved absorption profiles of a suite of ionic transitions paired with careful ionization analyses of individual components, cool clumps of size as small aslcl∼ 1 pc and density lower thannH= 10−3cm−3are identified in galaxy halos. In addition, comparing the line widths between different elements for kinematically matched components provides robust empirical constraints on the thermal temperatureTand the nonthermal motionsbNT, independent of the ionization models. On average,bNTis found to increase withlclfollowingbNTlcl0.3over three decades in spatial scale fromlcl≈ 1 pc tolcl≈ 1 kpc. Attributing the observedbNTto turbulent motions internal to the clumps, the best-fitbNTlclrelation shows that the turbulence is consistent with Kolmogorov at <1 kpc with a roughly constant energy transfer rate per unit mass ofϵ≈ 0.003 cm2s−3and a dissipation timescale of ≲100 Myr. No significant difference is found between massive quiescent and star-forming halos in the sample on scales less than 1 kpc. While the inferredϵis comparable to what is found in Civabsorbers at high redshift, it is considerably smaller than observed in star-forming gas or in extended line-emitting nebulae around distant quasars. A brief discussion of possible sources to drive the observed turbulence in the cool CGM is presented.

     
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  9. ABSTRACT

    This paper presents a newly established sample of 19 unique galaxies and galaxy groups at redshift z = 0.89–1.21 in six QSO fields from the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS), designated as the CUBSz1 sample. In this sample, nine galaxies or galaxy groups show absorption features, while the other 10 systems exhibit 2σ upper limits of $\log N (\rm{He\,{\small I}})/\mbox{${\rm cm^{-2}}$}\lesssim 13.5$ and $\log N (\rm{O\,{\small V}})/\mbox{${\rm cm^{-2}}$}\lesssim 13.3$. Environmental properties of the galaxies, including galaxy overdensities, the total stellar mass and gravitational potential summed over all neighbours, and the presence of local ionizing sources, are found to have a significant impact on the observed CGM absorption properties. Specifically, massive galaxies and galaxies in overdense regions exhibit a higher rate of incidence of absorption. The CGM absorption properties in galaxy groups appear to be driven by the galaxy closest to the QSO sightline, rather than by the most massive galaxy or by mass-weighted properties. We introduce a total projected gravitational potential ψ, defined as −ψ/G = ∑Mhalo/dproj summed over all group members, to characterize the galaxy environment. This projected gravitational potential correlates linearly with the maximum density detected in each sightline (i.e. a power-law slope of $0.95_{-0.14}^{+0.15}$), consistent with higher pressure gas being confined in deeper gravitational potential wells. In addition, we find that the radial profile of cool gas density exhibits a decline from the inner regions to the outskirts, and the amplitude is consistent with the cool gas being in pressure balance with the hot halo. Finally, we note that the ionizing flux from nearby galaxies can elevate the N(H i)/N(He i) ratio, which provides a unique diagnostic of possible local sources contributing to the ionizing radiation field.

     
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