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  1. ABSTRACT

    Strongly magnetized (B ≥ 1012 G) accreting neutron stars (NSs) are prime targets for studying the launching of jets by objects with a solid surface; while classical jet-launching models predict that such NSs cannot launch jets, recent observations and models argue otherwise. Transient Be/X-ray binaries (BeXRBs) are critical laboratories for probing this poorly explored parameter space for jet formation. Here, we present the coordinated monitoring campaigns of three BeXRBs across four outbursts: giant outbursts of SAX 2103.5+4545, 1A 0535+262, and GRO J1008–57, as well as a Type-I outburst of the latter. We obtain radio detections of 1A 0535+262 during ten out of twenty observations, while the other targets remained undetected at typical limits of 20–50 $\mu$Jy. The radio luminosity of 1A 0535+262 positively correlates with its evolving X-ray luminosity, and inhabits a region of the LX–LR plane continuing the correlation observed previously for the BeXRB Swift J0243.6+6124. We measure a BeXRB LX–LR coupling index of β = 0.86 ± 0.06 ($L_R \propto L_X^\beta$), similar to the indices measured in NS and black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. Strikingly, the coupling’s LR normalization is ∼275 and ∼6.2 × 103 times lower than in those two comparison samples, respectively. We conclude that jet emission likely dominates during themore »main peak of giant outbursts, but is only detectable for close-by or super-Eddington systems at current radio sensitivities. We discuss these results in the broader context of X-ray binary radio studies, concluding that our results suggest how supergiant X-ray binaries may host a currently unidentified additional radio emission mechanism.

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  2. Abstract We present a broadband radio study of the transient jets ejected from the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1535–571, which underwent a prolonged outburst beginning on 2017 September 2. We monitored MAXI J1535–571 with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at frequencies from 119 to 186 MHz over six epochs from 2017 September 20 to 2017 October 14. The source was quasi-simultaneously observed over the frequency range 0.84–19 GHz by UTMOST (the Upgraded Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope) the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), and the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA). Using the LBA observations from 2017 September 23, we measured the source size to be $34\pm1$ mas. During the brightest radio flare on 2017 September 21, the source was detected down to 119 MHz by the MWA, and the radio spectrum indicates a turnover between 250 and 500 MHz, which is most likely due to synchrotron self-absorption (SSA). By fitting the radio spectrum with a SSA model and using the LBA size measurement, we determined various physical parameters of the jet knot (identified in ATCA data), including the jet opening angle ( $\phi_{\rm op} = 4.5\pm1.2^{\circ}$ ) and the magnetic field strengthmore »( $B_{\rm s} = 104^{+80}_{-78}$ mG). Our fitted magnetic field strength agrees reasonably well with that inferred from the standard equipartition approach, suggesting the jet knot to be close to equipartition. Our study highlights the capabilities of the Australian suite of radio telescopes to jointly probe radio jets in black hole X-ray binaries via simultaneous observations over a broad frequency range, and with differing angular resolutions. This suite allows us to determine the physical properties of X-ray binary jets. Finally, our study emphasises the potential contributions that can be made by the low-frequency part of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA-Low) in the study of black hole X-ray binaries.« less