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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2025
  2. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that are essential for plant growth, development and adaptation to environmental stresses. BRs act in a dose-dependent manner and do not travel over long distances; hence, BR homeostasis maintenance is critical for their function. Biosynthesis of bioactive BRs relies on the cell-to-cell movement of hormone precursors. However, the mechanism of the short-distance BR transport is unknown, and its contribution to the control of endogenous BR levels remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that plasmodesmata (PD) mediate the passage of BRs between neighboring cells. Intracellular BR content, in turn, is capable of modulating PD permeability to optimize its own mobility, thereby manipulating BR biosynthesis and signaling. Our work uncovers a thus far unknown mode of steroid transport in eukaryotes and exposes an additional layer of BR homeostasis regulation in plants. 
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  3. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones that regulate diverse processes, such as cell division and cell elongation, through gene regulatory networks that vary in space and time. By using time series single-cell RNA sequencing to profile brassinosteroid-responsive gene expression specific to different cell types and developmental stages of theArabidopsisroot, we identified the elongating cortex as a site where brassinosteroids trigger a shift from proliferation to elongation associated with increased expression of cell wall–related genes. Our analysis revealedHOMEOBOX FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 7(HAT7) andGT-2-LIKE 1(GTL1) as brassinosteroid-responsive transcription factors that regulate cortex cell elongation. These results establish the cortex as a site of brassinosteroid-mediated growth and unveil a brassinosteroid signaling network regulating the transition from proliferation to elongation, which illuminates aspects of spatiotemporal hormone responses.

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  4. Abstract Endomembrane trafficking is essential for all eukaryotic cells. The best-characterized membrane trafficking organelles include the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, early and recycling endosomes, multivesicular body, or late endosome, lysosome/vacuole, and plasma membrane. Although historically plants have given rise to cell biology, our understanding of membrane trafficking has mainly been shaped by the much more studied mammalian and yeast models. Whereas organelles and major protein families that regulate endomembrane trafficking are largely conserved across all eukaryotes, exciting variations are emerging from advances in plant cell biology research. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on plant endomembrane trafficking, with a focus on four distinct trafficking pathways: ER-to-Golgi transport, endocytosis, trans-Golgi network-to-vacuole transport, and autophagy. We acknowledge the conservation and commonalities in the trafficking machinery across species, with emphasis on diversity and plant-specific features. Understanding the function of organelles and the trafficking machinery currently nonexistent in well-known model organisms will provide great opportunities to acquire new insights into the fundamental cellular process of membrane trafficking. 
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