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  1. Abstract In many electrochemical processes, the transport of charged species is governed by the Nernst–Planck equation, which includes terms for both diffusion and electrochemical migration. In this work, a multi-physics, multi-species model based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented to model the Nernst–Planck equation in systems with electrodeposition. Electrodeposition occurs when ions are deposited onto an electrode. These deposits create complex boundary geometries, which can be challenging for numerical methods to resolve. SPH is a particularly effective numerical method for systems with moving and deforming boundaries due to its particle nature. This paper discusses the SPH implementation of the Nernst–Planck equations with electrodeposition and verifies the model with an analytical solution and a numerical integrator. A convergence study of migration and precipitation is presented to illustrate the model’s accuracy, along with comparisons of the deposition growth front to experimental results. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Uterine injury from procedures such as Cesarean sections (C-sections) often have severe consequences on subsequent pregnancy outcomes, leading to disorders such as placenta previa, placenta accreta, and infertility. With rates of C-section at ~30% of deliveries in the USA and projected to continue to climb, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which these pregnancy disorders arise and opportunities for intervention are needed. Here we describe a rodent model of uterine injury on subsequent in utero outcomes. We observed three distinct phenotypes: increased rates of resorption and death, embryo spacing defects, and placenta accreta-like features of reduced decidua and expansion of invasive trophoblasts. We show that the appearance of embryo spacing defects depends entirely on the phase of estrous cycle at the time of injury. Using RNA-seq, we identified perturbations in the expression of components of the COX/prostaglandin pathway after recovery from injury, a pathway that has previously been demonstrated to play an important role in embryo spacing. Therefore, we demonstrate that uterine damage in this mouse model causes morphological and molecular changes that ultimately lead to placental and embryonic developmental defects.

     
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  3. Tafuni, Angelo (Ed.)
  4. Abstract

    Early phases of green material development can be accelerated by identifying driving factors that control material properties to understand potential tradeoffs. Full investigation of fabrication variables is often prohibitively expensive. We propose a pared‐down design of experiments (DOE) approach to identify driving variables in limited data scenarios using tunable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) foams made via sacrificial templating as an example system. This new approach systematically determines the dependencies of porosity, transparency, and fluid flow by varying the template particle size and packing while using a more sustainable solvent. Factor screening identified template particle size and packing density as the driving factors for foam performance by controlling pore size and interconnectivity. The framework developed provides a robust, foundational understanding of how to green and tune a novel material's properties using an efficient and effective exploration of the design space. Recommendations for applying this method to a broad suite of experiments are provided.

     
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  5. Dendrite growth affects material systems across applications as diverse as lithium batteries, organic light emitting diodes, turbine blades, and biological sensors. Their unique crystal structure and ability to physically see growth make for a unique undergraduate laboratory experience. This experiment uses dendrite growth to explore the physical and chemical driving forces behind dendrite growth through a set of viscous, supersaturated solutions of varying ammonium chloride and gelatin concentrations. The degree of NH4Cl supersaturation determines growth rate, which can be mediated by the gelatin limiting diffusional mass transfer. This exercise was designed for a material science course, though it could easily be adapted to an inorganic or general chemistry course. Through this experiment, students are introduced to optical microscopy for quantitative analysis, a common, inexpensive analytical research tool rarely seen in the undergraduate laboratory. When chemical driving forces are dominant (low gelatin, high salt concentrations), a more ordered dendrite structure forms, with primary branches at 90° angles. Conversely, as diffusion becomes more dominant, a more disordered, denser dendrite structure is observed and the growth rate is slower. Students use both qualitative and quantitative observations to make connections between a fundamental laboratory exercise and critical materials processing techniques that rely on physicochemical driving forces. 
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  6. Lithium metal as an anode has been widely accepted due to its higher negative electrochemical potential and theoretical capacity. Nevertheless, the existing safety and cyclability issues limit lithium metal anodes from practical use in high-energy density batteries. Repeated Li deposition and dissolution processes upon cycling lead to the formation of dendrites at the interface which results in reduced Li availability for electrochemical reactions, disruption in Li transport through the interface and increased safety concerns due to short circuiting. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy using Ionic Liquid Crystals (ILCs) as the electrolyte cum pseudo-separator to suppress dendrite growth with their anisotropic properties controlling Li-ion mass transport. A thermotropic ILC with two-dimensional Li-ion conducting pathways was synthesized and characterized. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses elucidate that the ILC formed with a smectic A phase, which can be utilized for wide temperature window operation. The results of electrochemical studies corroborate the efficacy of ILC electrolytes in mitigating dendrite formation even after 850 hours and it is further substantiated by numerical simulation and the mechanism involved in dendritic suppression was deduced. 
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