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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Entangled two-photon absorption (ETPA) is known to create photoinduced transitions with extremely low light intensity, reducing the risk of phototoxicity compared to classical two-photon absorption. Previous works have predicted the ETPA cross-section, σe, to vary inversely with the product of entanglement time (Te) and entanglement area (Ae), i.e., σe ∼ 1/AeTe. The decreasing σe with increasing Te has limited ETPA to fs-scale Te, while ETPA applications for ps-scale spectroscopy have been unexplored. However, we show that spectral−spatial coupling, which reduces Ae as the SPDC bandwidth (σf ) decreases, plays a significant role in determining σe when Te > ∼100 fs.more »We experimentally measured σe for zinc tetraphenylporphyrin at several σf values. For type-I ETPA, σe increases as σf decreases down to 0.1 ps−1 . For type-II SPDC, σe is constant for a wide range of σf . With a theoretical analysis of the data, the maximum type-I σe would occur at σf = 0.1 ps−1 (Te = 10 ps). At this maximum, σe is 1 order of magnitude larger than fs-scale σe and 3 orders of magnitude larger than previous predictions of ps-scale σe. By utilizing this spectral−spatial coupling, narrowband type-I ETPA provides a new opportunity to increase the efficiency of measuring nonlinear optical signals and to control photochemical reactions requiring ps temporal precision.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2022
  5. SUMMARY The transfer of nutrients between cells, or cross-feeding, is a ubiquitous feature of microbial communities with emergent properties that influence our health and orchestrate global biogeochemical cycles. Cross-feeding inevitably involves the externalization of molecules. Some of these molecules directly serve as cross-fed nutrients, while others can facilitate cross-feeding. Altogether, externalized molecules that promote cross-feeding are diverse in structure, ranging from small molecules to macromolecules. The functions of these molecules are equally diverse, encompassing waste products, enzymes, toxins, signaling molecules, biofilm components, and nutrients of high value to most microbes, including the producer cell. As diverse as the externalized andmore »transferred molecules are the cross-feeding relationships that can be derived from them. Many cross-feeding relationships can be summarized as cooperative but are also subject to exploitation. Even those relationships that appear to be cooperative exhibit some level of competition between partners. In this review, we summarize the major types of actively secreted, passively excreted, and directly transferred molecules that either form the basis of cross-feeding relationships or facilitate them. Drawing on examples from both natural and synthetic communities, we explore how the interplay between microbial physiology, environmental parameters, and the diverse functional attributes of extracellular molecules can influence cross-feeding dynamics. Though microbial cross-feeding interactions represent a burgeoning field of interest, we may have only begun to scratch the surface.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 17, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2022
  7. Drywall partition walls are susceptible to damage at low-level drifts, and hence reducing such damage is key to achieving seismic resiliency in buildings. Prior tests on drywall partition walls have shown that slip track connection detailing leads to better performance than other detailing, such as fully-fixed connections. However, in all prior testing, partition wall performance was evaluated using a unidirectional loading protocol (either in-plane or out-of-plane) or in shake table testing. Moreover, all details are susceptible to considerable damage to wall intersections. Two phases of the test have been performed at the Natural Hazards Engineering Research Infrastructure (NHERI) Lehigh Equipmentmore »Facility to develop improved details of drywall partition walls under bidirectional loading. The partition walls were tested alongside a cross-laminated timber (CLT) post-tensioned rocking wall subassembly, wherein the CLT system is under development as a resilient lateral system for tall timber buildings. In the Phase 1, the slip behavior of conventional slip-track detailing was compared to telescoping detailing (track-within-a-track deflection assembly). In the Phase 2, two details for reducing the wall intersection damage were evaluated on traditional slip-track C-shaped walls. First, a corner gap detail was tested. This detail incorporates a gap through the wall intersection to reduce the collision damage at two intersecting walls. Second, a distributed gap detail was tested. In this approach, the aim was to reduce damage by using more frequent control joints through the length of the wall. All walls were tested under a bidirectional loading protocol with three sub-cycles: in-plane, a bi-directional hexagonal load path, and a bi-directional hexagonal load path with an increase in the out-of-plane drift. This loading protocol allows for studying the bidirectional behavior of walls and evaluating the effect of out-of-plane drift on the partition wall resisting force. In the Phase 1, the telescoping detailing performed better than conventional slip track detailing because it eliminated damage to the framing. In Phase 2, the distributed gap detailing delayed damage to about 1% story drift. For the corner gap detailing, the sacrificial corner bead detached at low drifts, but the wall itself was damage-free until 2.5% drift. Bidirectional loading was found to have an insignificant influence on the in-plane resistance of the walls, and the overall resistance of the walls was trivial compared to the CLT rocking.« less
  8. Abstract. Tropical ecosystems contribute significantly to global emissionsof methane (CH4), and landscape topography influences the rate ofCH4 emissions from wet tropical forest soils. However, extreme eventssuch as drought can alter normal topographic patterns of emissions. Here weexplain the dynamics of CH4 emissions during normal and droughtconditions across a catena in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.Valley soils served as the major source of CH4 emissions in a normalprecipitation year (2016), but drought recovery in 2015 resulted in dramaticpulses in CH4 emissions from all topographic positions. Geochemicalparameters including (i) dissolved organic carbon (C), acetate, and soil pH and (ii) hydrological parameters like soil moisturemore »and oxygen (O2)concentrations varied across the catena. During the drought, soil moisturedecreased in the slope and ridge, and O2 concentrations increased in thevalley. We simulated the dynamics of CH4 emissions with theMicrobial Model for Methane Dynamics-Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis–Menten (M3D-DAMM), which couples a microbialfunctional group CH4 model with a diffusivity module for solute and gastransport within soil microsites. Contrasting patterns of soil moisture,O2, acetate, and associated changes in soil pH with topographyregulated simulated CH4 emissions, but emissions were also altered byrate-limited diffusion in soil microsites. Changes in simulated availablesubstrate for CH4 production (acetate, CO2, and H2) andoxidation (O2 and CH4) increased the predicted biomass ofmethanotrophs during the drought event and methanogens during droughtrecovery, which in turn affected net emissions of CH4. A variance-basedsensitivity analysis suggested that parameters related to aceticlasticmethanogenesis and methanotrophy were most critical to simulate net CH4emissions. This study enhanced the predictive capability for CH4emissions associated with complex topography and drought in wet tropicalforest soils.« less
  9. Abstract Flapping wings deform under both aerodynamic and inertial forces. However, many flapping wing fluid–structure interaction (FSI) models require significant computational resources which limit their effectiveness for high-dimensional parametric studies. Here, we present a simple bilaterally coupled FSI model for a wing subject to single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) flapping. The model is reduced-order and can be solved several orders of magnitude faster than direct computational methods. To verify the model experimentally, we construct a SDOF rotation stage and measure basal strain of a flapping wing in-air and in-vacuum. Overall, the derived model estimates wing strain with good accuracy. In-vacuum, the wing hasmore »a large 3ω response when flapping at approximately one-third of its natural frequency due to a superharmonic resonance, where the superharmonic occurs due to the interaction of inertial forces and time-varying centrifugal softening. In-air, this 3ω response is attenuated significantly as a result of aerodynamic damping, whereas the primary ω response is increased due to aerodynamic loading. These results highlight the importance of (1) bilateral coupling between the fluid and structure, since unilaterally coupled approaches do not adequately describe deformation-induced aerodynamic damping and (2) time-varying stiffness, which generates superharmonics of the flapping frequency in the wing’s dynamic response. The simple SDOF model and experimental study presented in this work demonstrate the potential for a reduced-order FSI model that considers both bilateral fluid–structure coupling and realistic multi-degrees-of-freedom flapping kinematics moving forward.« less