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  1. ABSTRACT We present improved results of the measurement of the correlation between galaxies and the intergalactic medium transmission at the end of reionization. We have gathered a sample of 13 spectroscopically confirmed Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) and 21 Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) at angular separations 20 arcsec ≲ θ ≲ 10 arcmin (∼0.1–4 pMpc at z ∼ 6) from the sightlines to eight background z ≳ 6 quasars. We report for the first time the detection of an excess of Lyman-α transmission spikes at ∼10–60 cMpc from LAEs (3.2σ) and LBGs (1.9σ). We interpret the data with an improved model of the galaxy–Lyman-α transmission and two-point cross-correlations, which includes the enhanced photoionization due to clustered faint sources, enhanced gas densities around the central bright objects and spatial variations of the mean free path. The observed LAE(LBG)–Lyman-α transmission spike two-point cross-correlation function (2PCCF) constrains the luminosity-averaged escape fraction of all galaxies contributing to reionization to $\langle f_{\rm esc} \rangle _{M_{\rm UV}\lt -12} = 0.14_{-0.05}^{+0.28}\, (0.23_{-0.12}^{+0.46})$. We investigate if the 2PCCF measurement can determine whether bright or faint galaxies are the dominant contributors to reionization. Our results show that a contribution from faint galaxies ($M_{\rm UV} \gt -20 \, (2\sigma)$) is necessary to reproduce the observed 2PCCF and that reionization might be driven by different sub-populations around LBGs and LAEs at z ∼ 6. 
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  2. Abstract

    We present a new investigation of the intergalactic medium near reionization using dark gaps in the Lyβforest. With its lower optical depth, Lyβoffers a potentially more sensitive probe to any remaining neutral gas compared to the commonly used Lyαline. We identify dark gaps in the Lyβforest using spectra of 42 QSOs atzem> 5.5, including new data from the XQR-30 VLT Large Programme. Approximately 40% of these QSO spectra exhibit dark gaps longer than 10h−1Mpc atz≃ 5.8. By comparing the results to predictions from simulations, we find that the data are broadly consistent both with models where fluctuations in the Lyαforest are caused solely by ionizing ultraviolet background fluctuations and with models that include large neutral hydrogen patches atz< 6 due to a late end to reionization. Of particular interest is a very long (L= 28h−1Mpc) and dark (τeff≳ 6) gap persisting down toz≃ 5.5 in the Lyβforest of thez= 5.85 QSO PSO J025−11. This gap may support late reionization models with a volume-weighted average neutral hydrogen fraction of 〈xH I〉 ≳ 5% byz= 5.6. Finally, we infer constraints on 〈xH I〉 over 5.5 ≲z≲ 6.0 based on the observed Lyβdark gap length distribution and a conservative relationship between gap length and neutral fraction derived from simulations. We find 〈xH I〉 ≤ 0.05, 0.17, and 0.29 atz≃ 5.55, 5.75, and 5.95, respectively. These constraints are consistent with models where reionization ends significantly later thanz= 6.

     
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