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  1. Abstract

    Until recently, precise genome editing has been limited to a few organisms. The ability of Cas9 to generate double stranded DNA breaks at specific genomic sites has greatly expanded molecular toolkits in many organisms and cell types. Before CRISPR‐Cas9 mediated genome editing,P. patenswas unique among plants in its ability to integrate DNA via homologous recombination. However, selection for homologous recombination events was required to obtain edited plants, limiting the types of editing that were possible. Now with CRISPR‐Cas9, molecular manipulations inP. patenshave greatly expanded. This protocol describes a method to generate a variety of different genome edits. The protocol describes a streamlined method to generate the Cas9/sgRNA expression constructs, design homology templates, transform, and quickly genotype plants. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

    Basic Protocol 1: Constructing the Cas9/sgRNA transient expression vector

    Alternate Protocol 1: Shortcut to generating single and pooled Cas9/sgRNA expression vectors

    Basic Protocol 2: Designing the oligonucleotide‐based homology‐directed repair (HDR) template

    Alternate Protocol 2: Designing the plasmid‐based HDR template

    Basic Protocol 3: Inducing genome editing by transforming CRISPR vector intoP. patensprotoplasts

    Basic Protocol 4: Identifying edited plants.

     
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  2. Abstract Coat Protein complex II (COPII), a coat protein complex that forms vesicles on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mediates trafficking to the Golgi. While metazoans have few genes encoding each COPII component, plants have expanded these gene families, leading to the hypothesis that plant COPII has functionally diversified. In the moss Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens, the Sec23/24 gene families are each composed of seven genes. Silencing Sec23/24 revealed isoform-specific contributions to polarized growth, with the closely related Sec23D/E and Sec24C/D essential for protonemal development. Focusing on Sec23, we discovered that Sec23D/E mediate ER-to Golgi transport and are essential for tip growth, with Sec23D localizing to presumptive ER exit sites. In contrast, Sec23A, B, C, F, and G are dispensable and do not quantitatively affect ER-to-Golgi trafficking. However, Δsec23abcfg plants exhibited reduced secretion of plasma membrane cargo. Of the four highly expressed protonemal Sec23 genes, Sec23F/G are members of a divergent Sec23 clade specifically retained in land plants. Notably, Sec23G accumulates on ER-associated foci that are significantly larger, do not overlap with, and are independent of Sec23D. While Sec23D/E form ER exit sites and function as bona fide COPII components essential for tip-growing protonemata, Sec23G and the closely related Sec23F have likely functionally diversified, forming separate and independent ER exit sites and participating in Golgi-independent trafficking pathways. 
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