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  1. Abstract

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFEs) are being actively investigated for energy‐storage applications due to their large electric‐field‐induced polarization with slim hysteresis and fast energy charging–discharging capability. Here, a novel nanograin engineering approach based upon high kinetic energy deposition is reported, for mechanically inducing the RFE behavior in a normal ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3(PZT), which results in simultaneous enhancement in the dielectric breakdown strength (EDBS) and polarization. Mechanically transformed relaxor thick films with 4 µm thickness exhibit an exceptionalEDBSof 540 MV m−1and reduced hysteresis with large unsaturated polarization (103.6 µC cm−2), resulting in a record high energy‐storage density of 124.1 J cm−3and a power density of 64.5 MW cm−3. This fundamental advancement is correlated with the generalized nanostructure design that comprises nanocrystalline phases embedded within the amorphous matrix. Microstructure‐tailored ferroelectric behavior overcomes the limitations imposed by traditional compositional design methods and provides a feasible pathway for realization of high‐performance energy‐storage materials.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Energy harvesting from extremely low frequency magnetic fields using magneto‐mechano‐electric (MME) harvesters enables wireless power transfer for operating Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The MME harvesters are designed to resonate at a fixed frequency by absorbing AC magnetic fields through a composite cantilever comprising of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials, and a permanent magnetic tip mass. However, this harvester architecture limits power generation because volume of the magnetic end mass is closely coupled with the resonance frequency of the device structure. Here, a method is demonstrated for maintaining the resonance frequency of the MME harvesters under all operating conditions (e.g., 60 Hz, standard frequency of electricity in many countries) while simultaneously enhancing the output power generation. By distributing the magnetic mass over the beam, the output power of the harvester is significantly enhanced at a constant resonance frequency. The MME harvester with distributed forcing shows 280% improvement in the power generation compared with a traditional architecture. The generated power is shown to be sufficient to power eight different onboard sensors with wireless data transmission integrated on a drone. These results demonstrate the promise of MME energy harvesters for powering wireless communication and IoT sensors.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving the development of new generation of sensors, communication components, and power sources. Ideally, IoT sensors and communication components are expected to be powered by sustainable energy source freely available in the environment. Here, a breakthrough in this direction is provided by demonstrating high output power energy harvesting from very low amplitude stray magnetic fields, which exist everywhere, through magnetoelectric (ME) coupled magneto‐mechano‐electric (MME) energy conversion. ME coupled MME harvester comprised of multiple layers of amorphous magnetostrictive material, piezoelectric macrofiber composite, and magnetic tip mass, interacts with an external magnetic field to generate electrical energy. Comprehensive experimental investigation and a theoretical model reveal that both the magnetic torque generated through magnetic loading and amplification of magneto‐mechanical vibration by ME coupling contributes toward the generation of high electrical power from the stray magnetic field around power cables of common home appliances. The generated electrical power from the harvester is sufficient for operating microsensors (gyro, temperature, and humidity sensing) and wireless data transmission systems. These results will facilitate the deployment of IoT devices in emerging intelligent infrastructures.

     
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