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  1. Abstract We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array band 6/7 (1.3 mm/0.87 mm) and Very Large Array Ka-band (9 mm) observations toward NGC 2071 IR, an intermediate-mass star-forming region. We characterize the continuum and associated molecular line emission toward the most luminous protostars, i.e., IRS1 and IRS3, on ∼100 au (0.″2) scales. IRS1 is partly resolved in the millimeter and centimeter continuum, which shows a potential disk. IRS3 has a well-resolved disk appearance in the millimeter continuum and is further resolved into a close binary system separated by ∼40 au at 9 mm. Both sources exhibit clear velocity gradients across theirmore »disk major axes in multiple spectral lines including C 18 O, H 2 CO, SO, SO 2 , and complex organic molecules like CH 3 OH, 13 CH 3 OH, and CH 3 OCHO. We use an analytic method to fit the Keplerian rotation of the disks and give constraints on physical parameters with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine. The IRS3 binary system is estimated to have a total mass of 1.4–1.5 M ⊙ . IRS1 has a central mass of 3–5 M ⊙ based on both kinematic modeling and its spectral energy distribution, assuming that it is dominated by a single protostar. For both IRS1 and IRS3, the inferred ejection directions from different tracers, including radio jet, water maser, molecular outflow, and H 2 emission, are not always consistent, and for IRS1 these can be misaligned by ∼50°. IRS3 is better explained by a single precessing jet. A similar mechanism may be present in IRS1 as well but an unresolved multiple system in IRS1 is also possible.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present H -band (1.65 μ m) and SOFIA HAWC+ 154 μ m polarization observations of the low-mass core L483. Our H -band observations reveal a magnetic field that is overwhelmingly in the E–W direction, which is approximately parallel to the bipolar outflow that is observed in scattered IR light and in single-dish 12 CO observations. From our 154 μ m data, we infer a ∼45° twist in the magnetic field within the inner 5″ (1000 au) of L483. We compare these new observations with published single-dish 350 μ m polarimetry and find that the 10,000 au scale Hmore »-band data match the smaller-scale 350 μ m data, indicating that the collapse of L483 is magnetically regulated on these larger scales. We also present high-resolution 1.3 mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array data of L483 that reveals it is a close binary star with a separation of 34 au. The plane of the binary of L483 is observed to be approximately parallel to the twisted field in the inner 1000 au. Comparing this result to the ∼1000 au protostellar envelope, we find that the envelope is roughly perpendicular to the 1000 au HAWC+ field. Using the data presented, we speculate that L483 initially formed as a wide binary and the companion star migrated to its current position, causing an extreme shift in angular momentum thereby producing the twisted magnetic field morphology observed. More observations are needed to further test this scenario.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Star formation primarily occurs in filaments where magnetic fields are expected to be dynamically important. The largest and densest filaments trace the spiral structure within galaxies. Over a dozen of these dense (∼10 4 cm −3 ) and long (>10 pc) filaments have been found within the Milky Way, and they are often referred to as “bones.” Until now, none of these bones has had its magnetic field resolved and mapped in its entirety. We introduce the SOFIA legacy project FIELDMAPS which has begun mapping ∼10 of these Milky Way bones using the HAWC+ instrument at 214 μ mmore »and 18.″2 resolution. Here we present a first result from this survey on the ∼60 pc long bone G47. Contrary to some studies of dense filaments in the Galactic plane, we find that the magnetic field is often not perpendicular to the spine (i.e., the center line of the bone). Fields tend to be perpendicular in the densest areas of active star formation and more parallel or random in other areas. The average field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the Galactic plane or the bone. The magnetic field strengths along the spine typically vary from ∼20 to ∼100 μ G. Magnetic fields tend to be strong enough to suppress collapse along much of the bone, but for areas that are most active in star formation, the fields are notably less able to resist gravitational collapse.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We characterize protostellar multiplicity in 20 Current address: Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5–7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark. the Orion molecular clouds using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.87 mm and Very Large Array 9 mm continuum surveys toward 328 protostars. These observations are sensitive to projected spatial separations as small as ∼20 au, and we consider source separations up to 10 4 au as potential companions. The overall multiplicity fraction (MF) and companion fraction (CF) for the Orion protostars are 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.44 ± 0.03, respectively, considering separations from 20 to 10 4 au.more »The MFs and CFs are corrected for potential contamination by unassociated young stars using a probabilistic scheme based on the surface density of young stars around each protostar. The companion separation distribution as a whole is double peaked and inconsistent with the separation distribution of solar-type field stars, while the separation distribution of Flat Spectrum protostars is consistent solar-type field stars. The multiplicity statistics and companion separation distributions of the Perseus star-forming region are consistent with those of Orion. Based on the observed peaks in the Class 0 separations at ∼100 au and ∼10 3 au, we argue that multiples with separations <500 au are likely produced by both disk fragmentation and turbulent fragmentation with migration, and those at ≳10 3 au result primarily from turbulent fragmentation. We also find that MFs/CFs may rise from Class 0 to Flat Spectrum protostars between 100 and 10 3 au in regions of high young stellar object density. This finding may be evidence for the migration of companions from >10 3 au to <10 3 au, and that some companions between 10 3 and 10 4 au must be (or become) unbound.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
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