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  1. Abstract Radio frequency (RF) driven helicon plasma sources are commonly used for their ability to produce high-density argon plasmas ( n > 10 19  m −3 ) at relatively moderate powers (typical RF power < 2 kW). Typical electron temperatures are <10 eV and typical ion temperatures are <0.6 eV. A newly designed helicon antenna assembly (with concentric, double-layered, fully liquid-cooled RF-transparent windows) operates in steady-state at RF powers up to 10 kW. We report on the dependence of argon plasma density, electron temperature and ion temperature on RF power. At 10 kW, ion temperatures >2 eV in argon plasmas are measured withmore »laser induced fluorescence, which is consistent with a simple volume averaged 0D power balance model. 1D Monte Carlo simulations of the neutral density profile for these plasma conditions show strong neutral depletion near the core and predict neutral temperatures well above room temperatures. The plasmas created in this high-power helicon source (when light ions are employed) are ideally suited for fusion divertor plasma-material interaction studies and negative ion production for neutral beams.« less
  2. Abstract The multiplicity dependence of the pseudorapidity density of charged particles in proton–proton (pp) collisions at centre-of-mass energies $$\sqrt{s}~=~5.02$$ s = 5.02 , 7 and 13 TeV measured by ALICE is reported. The analysis relies on track segments measured in the midrapidity range ( $$|\eta | < 1.5$$ | η | < 1.5 ). Results are presented for inelastic events having at least one charged particle produced in the pseudorapidity interval $$|\eta |<1$$ | η | < 1 . The multiplicity dependence of the pseudorapidity density of charged particles is measured with mid- and forward rapidity multiplicity estimators, the lattermore »being less affected by autocorrelations. A detailed comparison with predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC event generators is also presented. The results can be used to constrain models for particle production as a function of multiplicity in pp collisions.« less
  3. Abstract The production of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm{K}^{\pm }$$ K ± , $$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{S}$$ K S 0 , $$\mathrm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$ K ∗ ( 892 ) 0 , $$\mathrm{p}$$ p , $$\phi (1020)$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) , $$\Lambda $$ Λ , $$\Xi ^{-}$$ Ξ - , $$\Omega ^{-}$$ Ω - , and their antiparticles was measured in inelastic proton–proton (pp) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13 TeV at midrapidity ( $$|y|<0.5$$ | y | < 0.5 ) as a function of transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T ) using the ALICE detector at the CERNmore »LHC. Furthermore, the single-particle $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T distributions of $$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{S}$$ K S 0 , $$\Lambda $$ Λ , and $$\overline{\Lambda }$$ Λ ¯ in inelastic pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 7$$ s = 7  TeV are reported here for the first time. The $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T distributions are studied at midrapidity within the transverse momentum range $$0\le p_{\mathrm{T}}\le 20$$ 0 ≤ p T ≤ 20 GeV/ c , depending on the particle species. The $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T spectra, integrated yields, and particle yield ratios are discussed as a function of collision energy and compared with measurements at lower $$\sqrt{s}$$ s and with results from various general-purpose QCD-inspired Monte Carlo models. A hardening of the spectra at high $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T with increasing collision energy is observed, which is similar for all particle species under study. The transverse mass and $$x_{\mathrm{T}}\equiv 2p_{\mathrm{T}}/\sqrt{s}$$ x T ≡ 2 p T / s scaling properties of hadron production are also studied. As the collision energy increases from $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 7–13 TeV, the yields of non- and single-strange hadrons normalized to the pion yields remain approximately constant as a function of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s , while ratios for multi-strange hadrons indicate enhancements. The $$p_\mathrm{{T}}$$ p T -differential cross sections of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm {K}^{\pm }$$ K ± and $$\mathrm {p}$$ p ( $$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$$ p ¯ ) are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, which are found to overestimate the cross sections for $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± and $$\mathrm{p}$$ p ( $$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$$ p ¯ ) at high $$p_\mathrm{{T}}$$ p T .« less
  4. A bstract The inclusive production of the J/ ψ and ψ (2S) charmonium states is studied as a function of centrality in p-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 8 . 16 TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed in the dimuon decay channel with the ALICE apparatus in the centre-of-mass rapidity intervals − 4 . 46 < y cms < − 2 . 96 (Pb-going direction) and 2 . 03 < y cms < 3 . 53 (p-going direction), down to zero transverse momentum ( p T ). The J/more »ψ and ψ (2S) production cross sections are evaluated as a function of the collision centrality, estimated through the energy deposited in the zero degree calorimeter located in the Pb-going direction. The p T -differential J/ ψ production cross section is measured at backward and forward rapidity for several centrality classes, together with the corresponding average 〈 p T 〉 and $$ \left\langle {p}_{\mathrm{T}}^2\right\rangle $$ p T 2 values. The nuclear effects affecting the production of both charmonium states are studied using the nuclear modification factor. In the p-going direction, a suppression of the production of both charmonium states is observed, which seems to increase from peripheral to central collisions. In the Pb-going direction, however, the centrality dependence is different for the two states: the nuclear modification factor of the J/ ψ increases from below unity in peripheral collisions to above unity in central collisions, while for the ψ (2S) it stays below or consistent with unity for all centralities with no significant centrality dependence. The results are compared with measurements in p-Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV and no significant dependence on the energy of the collision is observed. Finally, the results are compared with theoretical models implementing various nuclear matter effects.« less