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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 28, 2022
  2. Spiking neural networks are viable alternatives to classical neural networks for edge processing in low-power embedded and IoT devices. To reap their benefits, neuromorphic network accelerators that tend to support deep networks still have to expend great effort in fetching synaptic states from a large remote memory. Since local computation in these networks is event-driven, memory becomes the major part of the system's energy consumption. In this paper, we explore various opportunities of data reuse that can help mitigate the redundant traffic for retrieval of neuron meta-data and post-synaptic weights. We describe CyNAPSE, a baseline neural processing unit and itsmore »accompanying software simulation as a general template for exploration on various levels. We then investigate the memory access patterns of three spiking neural network benchmarks that have significantly different topology and activity. With a detailed study of locality in memory traffic, we establish the factors that hinder conventional cache management philosophies from working efficiently for these applications. To that end, we propose and evaluate a domain-specific management policy that takes advantage of the forward visibility of events in a queue-based event-driven simulation framework. Subsequently, we propose network-adaptive enhancements to make it robust to network variations. As a result, we achieve 13-44% reduction in system power consumption and 8-23% improvement over conventional replacement policies.« less
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023