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  1. Abstract

    Isotope shifts (ISs) of atomic energy levels are sensitive probes of nuclear structure and new physics beyond the standard model. We present an analysis of the ISs of the cadmium atom (Cd I) and singly charged cadmium ion (Cd II). ISs of the 229 nm, 326 nm, 361 nm and 480 nm lines of Cd I are measured with a variety of techniques; buffer–gas-cooled beam spectroscopy, capturing atoms in a magneto-optic-trap, and optical pumping. IS constants for the D1and D2lines of Cd II are calculated with high accuracy by employing analytical response relativistic coupled-cluster theory in the singles, doubles and triples approximations. Combining the calculations for Cd II with experiments, we infer IS constants for all low-lying transitions in Cd I. We benchmark existing calculations via different many-body methods against these constants. Our calculations for Cd II enable nuclear charge radii of Cd isotopes to be extracted with unprecedented accuracy. The combination of our precise calculations and measurements shows that King plots for Cd I can improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity to a new heavy boson by up to two orders of magnitude.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  9. Abstract

    The azimuthal ($$\Delta \varphi $$Δφ) correlation distributions between heavy-flavor decay electrons and associated charged particles are measured in pp and p–Pb collisions at$$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{{NN}}}} = 5.02$$sNN=5.02TeV. Results are reported for electrons with transverse momentum$$44<pT<16$$\textrm{GeV}/c$$GeV/c and pseudorapidity$$|\eta |<0.6$$|η|<0.6. The associated charged particles are selected with transverse momentum$$11<pT<7$$\textrm{GeV}/c$$GeV/c, and relative pseudorapidity separation with the leading electron$$|\Delta \eta | < 1$$|Δη|<1. The correlation measurements are performed to study and characterize the fragmentation and hadronization of heavy quarks. The correlation structures are fitted with a constant and two von Mises functions to obtain the baseline and the near- and away-side peaks, respectively. The results from p–Pb collisions are compared with those from pp collisions to study the effects of cold nuclear matter. In the measured trigger electron and associated particle kinematic regions, the two collision systems give consistent results. The$$\Delta \varphi $$Δφdistribution and the peak observables in pp and p–Pb collisions are compared with calculations from various Monte Carlo event generators.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
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