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  1. Kazarinoff, P. (Ed.)
    Disparities in undergraduate STEM degree completions across the United States are a national concern. Undergraduate-level research opportunities are vital for developing future researchers and building their scientific identity. These experiences can help students in community colleges acquire 21st-century skills and build confidence in their ability to do science [1-3]. The development and implementation of guided research experiences provide users with a topic they are familiar with but not necessarily experts in, like SARS-CoV2 infections. In this particular study, the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) was used to identify amino acid residues located on the immunogenic regions of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 variants: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. IEDB is a web-based bioinformatics tool that contains published epitope information and prediction aids that can be used as a research platform for studying infectious diseases. The objective of this study aimed to map the immunogenic regions on the spike glycoproteins of the SARS-CoV-2 variants and predict the immune evasion of these variants [4-6]. Identifying the antigenic determinations that bind to the antibodies is essential for designing future candidates for peptide-based vaccines. This study aims to map the immunogenic regions on the spike glycoproteins of the SARS-CoV-2 variants and predict the immune evasion of these variants [4-6]. Identifying the antigenic determinations that bind to the antibodies is essential for designing future candidates for peptide-based vaccines. This research identifies regions where mutations have occurred in the virus, which are important to study as they can affect the virus’s immune evasion and impact available vaccines. Targeting multiple immunogenic regions unaffected by mutations can serve as potential targets for new vaccines, providing better protection against different variants. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 18, 2024
  2. ABSTRACT

    Using spectra obtained with the VLT/FORS2 and Gemini-S/GMOS-S instruments, we have investigated carbon, nitrogen, and sodium abundances in a sample of red giant members of the Small Magellanic Cloud star cluster Kron 3. The metallicity and luminosity of the cluster are comparable to those of Galactic globular clusters but it is notably younger (age ≈ 6.5 Gyr). We have measured the strengths of the CN and CH molecular bands, finding a bimodal CN band-strength distribution and a CH/CN anticorrelation. Application of spectrum synthesis techniques reveals that the difference in the mean [N/Fe] and [C/Fe] values for the CN-strong and CN-weak stars are Δ <[N/Fe]> = 0.63 ± 0.16 dex and Δ <[C/Fe]> = −0.01 ± 0.07 dex after applying corrections for evolutionary mixing. We have also measured sodium abundances from the Na D lines finding an observed range in [Na/Fe] of ∼0.6 dex that correlates positively with the [N/Fe] values and a Δ <[Na/Fe]> = 0.12 ± 0.12 dex. While the statistical significance of the sodium abundance difference is not high, the observed correlation between the Na and N abundances supports its existence. The outcome represents the first star-by-star demonstration of correlated abundance variations involving sodium in an intermediate-age star cluster. The results add to existing photometric and spectroscopic indications of the presence of multiple populations in intermediate-age clusters with masses in excess of ∼105 M⊙. It confirms that the mechanism(s) responsible for the multiple populations in ancient globular clusters cannot solely be an early cosmological effect applying only in old clusters.

     
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  3. The double-spin-polarization observable E for γ p → pπ0 has been measured with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at photon beam energies Eγ from 0.367 to 2.173 GeV (corresponding to center-ofmass energies from 1.240 to 2.200 GeV) for pion center-ofmass angles, cos θc.m. π0 , between − 0.86 and 0.82. These new CLAS measurements cover a broader energy range and have smaller uncertainties compared to previous CBELSA data and provide an important independent check on systematics. These measurements are compared to predictions as well as new global fits from The George Washington University, Mainz, and Bonn-Gatchina groups. Their inclusion in multipole analyses will allow us to refine our understanding of the single-pion production contribution to the Gerasimov-Drell- Hearn sum rule and improve the determination of resonance properties, which will be presented in a future publication. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024