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  1. Abstract

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronic respiratory infections which progressively decrease lung function over time. Affected individuals experience episodes of intensified respiratory symptoms called pulmonary exacerbations (PEx), which in turn accelerate pulmonary function decline and decrease survival rate. An overarching challenge is that there is no standard classification for PEx, which results in treatments that are heterogeneous. Improving PEx classification and management is a significant research priority for people with CF. Previous studies have shown volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as biomarkers because they are products of metabolic pathways dysregulated by different diseases. To provide insights on PEx classification and other CF clinical factors, exhaled breath samples were collected from 18 subjects with CF, with some experiencing PEx and others serving as a baseline. Exhaled breath was collected in Tedlar bags during tidal breathing and cryotransferred to headspace vials for VOC analysis by solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Statistical significance testing between quantitative and categorical clinical variables displayed percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1pp) was decreased in subjects experiencing PEx. VOCs correlating with other clinical variables (body mass index, age, use of highly effective modulator treatment (HEMT), andmore »the need for inhaled tobramycin) were also explored. Two volatile aldehydes (octanal and nonanal) were upregulated in patients not taking the HEMT. VOCs correlating to potential confounding variables were removed and then analyzed by regression for significant correlations with FEV1pp measurements. Interestingly, the VOC with the highest correlation with FEV1pp (3,7-dimethyldecane) also gave the lowestp-value when comparing subjects at baseline and during PEx. Other VOCs that were differentially expressed due to PEx that were identified in this study include durene, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol 1-isobutyrate and 5-methyltridecane. Receiver operator characteristic curves were developed and showed 3,7-dimethyldecane had higher ability to classify PEx (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91) relative to FEV1pp values at collection (AUC = 0.83). However, normalized ΔFEV1pp values had the highest capability to distinguish PEx (AUC = 0.93). These results show that VOCs in exhaled breath may be a rich source of biomarkers for various clinical traits of CF, including PEx, that should be explored in larger sample cohorts and validation studies.

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  2. Abstract

    We present the analysis of ∼100 pc scale compact radio continuum sources detected in 63 local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs;LIR≥ 1011L), using FWHM ≲ 0.″1–0.″2 resolution 15 and 33 GHz observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We identify a total of 133 compact radio sources with effective radii of 8–170 pc, which are classified into four main categories—“AGN” (active galactic nuclei), “AGN/SBnuc” (AGN-starburst composite nucleus), “SBnuc” (starburst nucleus), and “SF” (star-forming clumps)—based on ancillary data sets and the literature. We find that “AGN” and “AGN/SBnuc” more frequently occur in late-stage mergers and have up to 3 dex higher 33 GHz luminosities and surface densities compared with “SBnuc” and “SF,” which may be attributed to extreme nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity in the former. Star formation rates (SFRs) and surface densities (ΣSFR) are measured for “SF” and “SBnuc” using both the total 33 GHz continuum emission (SFR ∼ 0.14–13Myr−1, ΣSFR∼ 13–1600Myr−1kpc−2) and the thermal free–free emission from Hiiregions (median SFRth∼ 0.4Myr−1,ΣSFRth44Myr−1kpc−2). These values are 1–2 dex higher than those measured for similar-sized clumps in nearby normal (non-U/LIRGs). The latter also have a much flatter median 15–33 GHz spectral index (∼−0.08) compared withmore »“SBnuc” and “SF” (∼−0.46), which may reflect higher nonthermal contribution from supernovae and/or interstellar medium densities in local U/LIRGs that directly result from and/or lead to their extreme star-forming activities on 100 pc scales.

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  3. ABSTRACT The merger of two or more galaxies can enhance the inflow of material from galactic scales into the close environments of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), obscuring and feeding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both recent simulations and observations of AGN in mergers have confirmed that mergers are related to strong nuclear obscuration. However, it is still unclear how AGN obscuration evolves in the last phases of the merger process. We study a sample of 60 luminous and ultra-luminous IR galaxies (U/LIRGs) from the GOALS sample observed by NuSTAR. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are Compton thick (CT; $N_{\rm H}\ge 10^{24}\rm \, cm^{-2}$) peaks at $74_{-19}^{+14}{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at a late merger stage, prior to coalescence, when the nuclei have projected separations (dsep) of 0.4–6 kpc. A similar peak is also observed in the median NH [$(1.6\pm 0.5)\times 10^{24}\rm \, cm^{-2}$]. The vast majority ($85^{+7}_{-9}{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) of the AGNs in the final merger stages (dsep ≲ 10 kpc) are heavily obscured ($N_{\rm H}\ge 10^{23}\rm \, cm^{-2}$), and the median NH of the accreting SMBHs in our sample is systematically higher than that of local hard X-ray-selected AGN, regardless of the merger stage. This implies that thesemore »objects have very obscured nuclear environments, with the $N_{\rm H}\ge 10^{23}\rm \, cm^{-2}$ gas almost completely covering the AGN in late mergers. CT AGNs tend to have systematically higher absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities than less obscured sources. This could either be due to an evolutionary effect, with more obscured sources accreting more rapidly because they have more gas available in their surroundings, or to a selection bias. The latter scenario would imply that we are still missing a large fraction of heavily obscured, lower luminosity ($L_{2-10}\lesssim 10^{43}\rm \, erg\, s^{-1}$) AGNs in U/LIRGs.« less
  4. Abstract The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) has become a cornerstone of extragalactic astronomy. Since the last public catalog in 2015, a wealth of new imaging and spectroscopic data have been collected in the COSMOS field. This paper describes the collection, processing, and analysis of these new imaging data to produce a new reference photometric redshift catalog. Source detection and multiwavelength photometry are performed for 1.7 million sources across the 2 deg 2 of the COSMOS field, ∼966,000 of which are measured with all available broadband data using both traditional aperture photometric methods and a new profile-fitting photometric extraction tool, The Farmer , which we have developed. A detailed comparison of the two resulting photometric catalogs is presented. Photometric redshifts are computed for all sources in each catalog utilizing two independent photometric redshift codes. Finally, a comparison is made between the performance of the photometric methodologies and of the redshift codes to demonstrate an exceptional degree of self-consistency in the resulting photometric redshifts. The i < 21 sources have subpercent photometric redshift accuracy and even the faintest sources at 25 < i < 27 reach a precision of 5%. Finally, these results are discussed in the context of previous, current, andmore »future surveys in the COSMOS field. Compared to COSMOS2015, it reaches the same photometric redshift precision at almost one magnitude deeper. Both photometric catalogs and their photometric redshift solutions and physical parameters will be made available through the usual astronomical archive systems (ESO Phase 3, IPAC-IRSA, and CDS).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. Abstract Liquid argon time projection chamber detector technology provides high spatial and calorimetric resolutions on the charged particles traversing liquid argon. As a result, the technology has been used in a number of recent neutrino experiments, and is the technology of choice for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). In order to perform high precision measurements of neutrinos in the detector, final state particles need to be effectively identified, and their energy accurately reconstructed. This article proposes an algorithm based on a convolutional neural network to perform the classification of energy deposits and reconstructed particles as track-like or arising from electromagnetic cascades. Results from testing the algorithm on experimental data from ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype of the DUNE far detector, are presented. The network identifies track- and shower-like particles, as well as Michel electrons, with high efficiency. The performance of the algorithm is consistent between experimental data and simulation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  6. A bstract We present a measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle angle ϕ 3 (also known as γ ) using a model-independent Dalitz plot analysis of B + → D ( $$ {K}_S^0 $$ K S 0 h + h − ) h + , where D is either a D 0 or $$ \overline{D} $$ D ¯ 0 meson and h is either a π or K . This is the first measurement that simultaneously uses Belle and Belle II data, combining samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 711 fb − 1 and 128 fb − 1 , respectively. All data were accumulated from energy-asymmetric e + e − collisions at a centre-of-mass energy corresponding to the mass of the Υ(4 S ) resonance. We measure ϕ 3 = (78 . 4 ± 11 . 4 ± 0 . 5 ± 1 . 0)°, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is the experimental systematic uncertainty and the third is from the uncertainties on external measurements of the D -decay strong-phase parameters.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023