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  1. SUMMARY

    Seamounts are volcanic constructs that litter the seafloor. They are important for understanding numerous aspects of marine science, such as plate tectonics, the volcanic melt budget, oceanic circulation, tsunami wave diffraction, tidal energy dissipation and mass wasting. Geometrically, seamounts come in many sizes and shapes, and for the purpose of modelling them for morphological, gravimetric or isostatic studies it is convenient to have simple analytical models whose properties are well known. Here, we present a family of seamount models that may be used in such studies, covering both the initial construction phase and later mass-wasting by sectoral collapses. We also derive realistic axisymmetric density variations that are compatible with observed first-order structure from seismic tomography studies.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The 2019 Ridgecrest conjugate Mw6.4 and Mw7.1 events resulted in several meters of strike‐slip and dip‐slip along an intricate rupture, extending from the surface down to 15 km. Now with >2 years of post‐rupture observations, we utilize these results to better understand vertical postseismic deformation from the Ridgecrest sequence and illuminate the emerging significance of vertical earthquake cycle deformation data. We determine the cumulative vertical displacement observed by the continuous GNSS network since Ridgecrest, which requires additional time series analyses to adequately resolve vertical deformation compared to the horizontal. Using a Maxwell‐type viscoelastic relaxation model, with a best fit time‐averaged asthenosphere viscosity of 4e17 Pa·s and a laterally heterogeneous lithosphere, we find that viscoelastic relaxation accounts for a majority of the cumulative vertical deformation at Ridgecrest and strongly controls far‐field observations in all north‐east‐up components. The viscoelastic model alone generally underpredicts deformation from GNSS and the remaining nonviscoelastic displacement is most prominent in the horizontal near‐field (−16 to 19 mm), revealing a deformation pattern matching the coseismic observations. This suggests that multiple deformation mechanisms are contributing to Ridgecrest's postseismic displacement, where afterslip likely dominates the near‐field while viscoelastic relaxation controls the far‐field. Similar deformation at individual GNSS stations has been observed for past earthquakes and additionally reveals long‐term transient viscosity over several years. Moreover, the greater temporal and spatial resolution of the GNSS array for Ridgecrest will help resolve the evolution of deformation for the entire network of observations as regional postseismic deformation persists for the next several years.

     
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  3. Abstract Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar is an important tool for imaging surface deformation from large continental earthquakes. Here, we present maps of coseismic displacement and strain from the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes using multiple Sentinel-1 images. We provide three types of interferometric products. (1) Standard interferograms from two look directions provide an overview of the deformation and can be used for modeling coseismic slip. (2) Phase gradient maps from stacks of coseismic interferograms provide high-resolution (∼30  m) images of strain concentration and surface fracturing that can be used to guide field surveys. (3) High-pass filtered, stacked, unwrapped phase is decomposed into east–west and up–down, south–north components and is used to determine the sense of fault slip. The resulting phase gradient maps reveal over 300 surface fractures, including triggered slip on the Garlock fault. The east–west component of high-pass filtered phase reveals the polarity of the strike-slip offset (right lateral or left lateral) for many of the fractures. We find a small number of fractures that have slip polarity that is retrograde to the background tectonic stress. This is similar to observations of retrograde slip observed near the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine rupture, but the Ridgecrest observations are more completely imaged by the frequent and high-quality acquisitions from the twin Sentinel-1 spacecrafts. Determining whether the retrograde features are triggered slip on existing faults, or compliant fault deformation in response to stress changes from the Ridgecrest earthquakes, or new Coulomb-style failures, will require additional field work, modeling, and analysis. 
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  4. Abstract

    Measuring crustal strain and seismic moment accumulation, is crucial for understanding the growth and distribution of seismic hazards along major fault systems. Here, we develop a methodology to integrate 4.5 years (2015–2019.5) of Sentinel‐1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and continuous Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series to achieve 6 to 12‐day sampling of surface displacements at ∼500 m spatial resolution over the entire San Andreas fault system. Numerous interesting deformation signals are identified with this product (video link:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxNLQKmHWpY). We decompose the line‐of‐sight InSAR displacements into three dimensions by combining the deformation azimuth from a GNSS‐derived interseismic fault model. We then construct strain rate maps using a smoothing interpolator with constraints from elasticity. The resulting deformation field reveals a wide array of crustal deformation processes including, on‐ and off‐fault secular and transient tectonic deformation, creep rates on all the major faults, and vertical signals associated with hydrological processes. The strain rate maps show significant off‐fault components that were not captured by GNSS‐only models. These results are important in assessing the seismic hazard in the region.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Rheologic variations in the Earth's crust (like elastic plate thickness [EPT] or crustal rigidity) modulate the rate at which seismic moment accumulates for potentially hazardous faults of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS). To quantify rates of seismic moment accumulation, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data were used to constrain surface deformation rates of a four‐dimensional viscoelastic deformation model that incorporates rheological variations spanning a 900 km section of the SAFS. Lateral variations in EPT, estimated from surface heat flow and seismic depth to the lithosphere‐asthenosphere boundary, were converted to lateral variations in rigidity and then used to solve for seismic moment accumulation rates on 32 fault segments. We find a cluster of elevated seismic moment rates (11–20 × 1015 Nm year−1km−1) along the main SAFS trace spanning the historicalMw7.9 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake rupture length; present‐day seismic moment magnitude on these segments ranges fromMw7.2–7.6. We also find that the average plate thickness in the Salton Trough is reduced to only 60% of the regional average, which results in a ∼60% decrease in moment accumulation rate along the Imperial fault. Likewise, a 30% increase of average plate thickness results in at least a ∼30% increase in moment rate and even larger increases are identified in regions of complex plate heterogeneity. These results emphasize the importance of considering rheological variations when estimating seismic hazard, suggesting that meaningful changes in seismic moment accumulation are revealed when considering spatial variations in crustal rheology.

     
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  6. Contemporary earthquake hazard models hinge on an understanding of how strain is distributed in the crust and the ability to precisely detect millimeter-scale deformation over broad regions of active faulting. Satellite radar observations revealed hundreds of previously unmapped linear strain concentrations (or fractures) surrounding the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence. We documented and analyzed displacements and widths of 169 of these fractures. Although most fractures are displaced in the direction of the prevailing tectonic stress (prograde), a large number of them are displaced in the opposite (retrograde) direction. We developed a model to explain the existence and behavior of these displacements. A major implication is that much of the prograde tectonic strain is accommodated by frictional slip on many preexisting faults.

     
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