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The effect of a first flush rainwater harvesting and subsurface irrigation system on E. coli and pathogen concentrations in irrigation water, soil, and produceFree, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Activity and Cephalosporin Resistance in Escherichia coli from U.S. Mid-Atlantic Surface and Reclaimed WaterVillanueva, Laura (Ed.)ABSTRACT Phylogenetic distribution and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity of Escherichia coli recovered from surface and reclaimed water in the mid-Atlantic U.S. were evaluated. Among 488 isolates, phylogroups B1 and A were the most and least prevalent, respectively. Water type, but not season, affected phylogroup distribution. The likelihood of detecting group A isolates was higher in reclaimed than pond ( P < 0.01), freshwater river ( P < 0.01) or brackish river (P < 0.05) water. Homogeneity in group distribution was lowest in pond water, where group B1 comprised 50% of isolates. Only 16 (3.3%) isolates exhibited phenotypic resistance to one or more cephalosporins tested and only four had ESBL activity, representing groups B1, B2 isolates, and D. Phylogroup was a factor in antimicrobial resistance ( P < 0.05), with group A (8.7%) and D (1.6%) exhibiting the highest and lowest rates. Resistance to cefoxitin was the most prevalent. Multi- versus single drug resistance was affected by phylogroup ( P < 0.05) and more likely in groups D and B1 than A which carried resistance to cefoxitin only. The most detected β-lactam resistance genes were bla CMY-2 and bla TEM . Water type was a factor for bla CTX-M gene detection ( P < 0.05). Phenotypicmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 9, 2023
Effects of season and water type on the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Ent. faecium from surface and reclaimed waterFree, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
Impact of irrigation water type and sampling frequency on Microbial Water Quality Profiles required for compliance with U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule standardsFree, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
Coupled DNA-labeling and sequencing approach enables the detection of viable-but-non-culturable Vibrio spp. in irrigation water sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed
Nontraditional irrigation water sources (e.g., recycled water, brackish water) may harbor human pathogens, including
Vibriospp., that could be present in a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) state, stymieing current culture-based detection methods. To overcome this challenge, we coupled 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, enrichment techniques, and 16S rRNA sequencing to identify metabolically-active Vibriospp .in nontraditional irrigation water (recycled water, pond water, non-tidal freshwater, and tidal brackish water). Our coupled BrdU-labeling and sequencing approach revealed the presence of metabolically-active Vibriospp. at all sampling sites. Whereas, the culture-based method only detected vibrios at three of the four sites. We observed the presence of V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticususing both methods, while V. aesturianusand V. shiloniiwere detected only through our labeling/sequencing approach. Multiple other pathogens of concern to human health were also identified through our labeling/sequencing approach including P. shigelloides, B. cereusand E. cloacae. Most importantly, 16S rRNA sequencing of BrdU-labeled samples resulted in Vibriospp. detection even when our culture-based methods resulted in negative detection. This suggests that our novel approach can effectively detect metabolically-active Vibriospp. that may have been present in a VBNC state, refining our understanding of the prevalence of vibrios in nontraditional irrigation waters.
Climate change, extreme events, and increased risk of salmonellosis: foodborne diseases active surveillance network (FoodNet), 2004-2014
Infections with nontyphoidal
Salmonellacause an estimated 19,336 hospitalizations each year in the United States. Sources of infection can vary by state and include animal and plant-based foods, as well as environmental reservoirs. Several studies have recognized the importance of increased ambient temperature and precipitation in the spread and persistence of Salmonellain soil and food. However, the impact of extreme weather events on Salmonellainfection rates among the most prevalent serovars, has not been fully evaluated across distinct U.S. regions. Methods
To address this knowledge gap, we obtained
Salmonellacase data for S.Enteriditis, S.Typhimurium, S.Newport, and S.Javiana (2004-2014; n = 32,951) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and weather data from the National Climatic Data Center (1960-2014). Extreme heat and precipitation events for the study period (2004-2014) were identified using location and calendar day specific 95thpercentile thresholds derived using a 30-year baseline (1960-1989). Negative binomial generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between exposure to extreme events and salmonellosis rates. Results
We observed that extreme heat exposure was associated with increased rates of infection with
S.Newport in Maryland (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR): 1.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.01, 1.14), and Tennessee (IRR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.09), both FoodNet sites with high densities of animal feeding operations (e.g., broilermore » Conclusions
Overall, our study suggests a stronger association between extreme precipitation events, compared to extreme heat, and salmonellosis across multiple U.S. regions. In addition, the rates of infection with
Salmonellaserovars that persist in environmental or plant-based reservoirs, such as S.Javiana and S.Newport, appear to be of particular significance regarding increased heat and rainfall events.
Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yield and Irrigation in the Monocacy River Watershed, USACrop yield depends on multiple factors, including climate conditions, soil characteristics, and available water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of projected temperature and precipitation changes on crop yields in the Monocacy River Watershed in the Mid-Atlantic United States based on climate change scenarios. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate watershed hydrology and crop yield. To evaluate the effect of future climate projections, four global climate models (GCMs) and three representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5, 6, and 8.5) were used in the SWAT model. According to all GCMs and RCPs, a warmer climate with a wetter Autumn and Spring and a drier late Summer season is anticipated by mid and late century in this region. To evaluate future management strategies, water budget and crop yields were assessed for two scenarios: current rainfed and adaptive irrigated conditions. Irrigation would improve corn yields during mid-century across all scenarios. However, prolonged irrigation would have a negative impact due to nutrients runoff on both corn and soybean yields compared to rainfed condition. Decision tree analysis indicated that corn and soybean yields are most influenced by soil moisture, temperature, and precipitation as well as the watermore »
Levels of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Alternative Irrigation Water Vary Based on Water Source on the Eastern Shore of MarylandGralnick, Jeffrey A. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Irrigation water sources have been shown to harbor foodborne pathogens and could contribute to the outbreak of foodborne illness related to consumption of contaminated produce. Determining the probability of and the degree to which these irrigation water sources contain these pathogens is paramount. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in alternative irrigation water sources. Water samples ( n = 188) were collected over 2 years (2016 to 2018) from 2 reclaimed water plants, 3 nontidal freshwater rivers, and 1 tidal brackish river on Maryland’s Eastern Shore (ESM). Samples were collected by filtration using modified Moore swabs (MMS) and analyzed by culture methods. Pathogen levels were quantified using a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure with three different volumes (10 liters, 1 liter, and 0.1 liter). Overall, 65% (122/188) and 40% (76/188) of water samples were positive for S. enterica and L. monocytogenes , respectively. For both pathogens, MPN values ranged from 0.015 to 11 MPN/liter. Pathogen levels (MPN/liter) were significantly ( P < 0.05) greater for the nontidal freshwater river sites and the tidal brackish river site than the reclaimed water sites. L. monocytogenes levels in water varied based on season.more »