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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Diurnal warm layers (DWLs) form near the surface of the ocean on days with strong solar radiation, weak to moderate winds, and small surface-wave effects. Here, we use idealized second-moment turbulence modeling, validated with large-eddy simulations (LES), to study the properties, dynamics, and energetics of DWLs across the entire physically relevant parameter space. Both types of models include representations of Langmuir turbulence (LT). We find that LT only slightly modifies DWL thicknesses and other bulk parameters under equilibrium wave conditions, but leads to a strong reduction in surface temperature and velocity with possible implications for air–sea coupling. Comparing tropical and the less frequently studied high-latitude DWLs, we find that LT has a strong impact on the energy budget and that rotation at high latitudes strongly modifies the DWL energetics, suppressing net energy turnover and entrainment. We identify the key nondimensional parameters for DWL evolution and find that the scaling relations of Price et al. provide a reliable representation of the DWL bulk properties across a wide parameter space, including high-latitude DWLs. We present different sets of revised model coefficients that include the deepening of the DWL due to LT and other aspects of our more advanced turbulence model to describe DWL properties at midday and during the DWL temperature peak in the afternoon, which we find to occur around 1500–1630 local time for a broad range of parameters.

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  3. Avidan, S. ; Brostow, G. ; Cissé, M ; Farinella, G.M. ; Hassner, T. (Ed.)
    Event perception tasks such as recognizing and localizing actions in streaming videos are essential for scaling to real-world application contexts. We tackle the problem of learning actor-centered representations through the notion of continual hierarchical predictive learning to localize actions in streaming videos without the need for training labels and outlines for the objects in the video. We propose a framework driven by the notion of hierarchical predictive learning to construct actor-centered features by attention-based contextualization. The key idea is that predictable features or objects do not attract attention and hence do not contribute to the action of interest. Experiments on three benchmark datasets show that the approach can learn robust representations for localizing actions using only one epoch of training, i.e., a single pass through the streaming video. We show that the proposed approach outperforms unsupervised and weakly supervised baselines while offering competitive performance to fully supervised approaches. Additionally, we extend the model to multi-actor settings to recognize group activities while localizing the multiple, plausible actors. We also show that it generalizes to out-of-domain data with limited performance degradation. 
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  4. Avidan, S. ; Brostow, G. ; Cissé, M. ; Farinella. G.M. ; Hassner, T. (Ed.)
    Graph-based representations are becoming increasingly popular for representing and analyzing video data, especially in object tracking and scene understanding applications. Accordingly, an essential tool in this approach is to generate statistical inferences for graphical time series associated with videos. This paper develops a Kalman-smoothing method for estimating graphs from noisy, cluttered, and incomplete data. The main challenge here is to find and preserve the registration of nodes (salient detected objects) across time frames when the data has noise and clutter due to false and missing nodes. First, we introduce a quotient-space representation of graphs that incorporates temporal registration of nodes, and we use that metric structure to impose a dynamical model on graph evolution. Then, we derive a Kalman smoother, adapted to the quotient space geometry, to estimate dense, smooth trajectories of graphs. We demonstrate this framework using simulated data and actual video graphs extracted from the Multiview Extended Video with Activities (MEVA) dataset. This framework successfully estimates graphs despite the noise, clutter, and missed detections. 
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  5. Abstract

    Name that Neutrinois a citizen science project where volunteers aid in classification of events for the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, an immense particle detector at the geographic South Pole. From March 2023 to September 2023, volunteers did classifications of videos produced from simulated data of both neutrino signal and background interactions.Name that Neutrinoobtained more than 128,000 classifications by over 1800 registered volunteers that were compared to results obtained by a deep neural network machine-learning algorithm. Possible improvements for bothName that Neutrinoand the deep neural network are discussed.

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  6. The paradigm of differentiable programming has significantly enhanced the scope of machine learning via the judicious use of gradient-based optimization. However, standard differentiable programming methods (such as autodiff) typically require that the machine learning models be differentiable, limiting their applicability. Our goal in this paper is to use a new, principled approach to extend gradient-based optimization to functions well modeled by splines, which encompass a large family of piecewise polynomial models. We derive the form of the (weak) Jacobian of such functions and show that it exhibits a block-sparse structure that can be computed implicitly and efficiently. Overall, we show that leveraging this redesigned Jacobian in the form of a differentiable" layer''in predictive models leads to improved performance in diverse applications such as image segmentation, 3D point cloud reconstruction, and finite element analysis. We also open-source the code at\url {https://github. com/idealab-isu/DSA}. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    Complex analyses involving multiple, dependent random quantities often lead to graphical models—a set of nodes denoting variables of interest, and corresponding edges denoting statistical interactions between nodes. To develop statistical analyses for graphical data, especially towards generative modeling, one needs mathematical representations and metrics for matching and comparing graphs, and subsequent tools, such as geodesics, means, and covariances. This paper utilizes a quotient structure to develop efficient algorithms for computing these quantities, leading to useful statistical tools, including principal component analysis, statistical testing, and modeling. We demonstrate the efficacy of this framework using datasets taken from several problem areas, including letters, biochemical structures, and social networks. 
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