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  1. Abstract Line intensity mapping (LIM) is a rapidly emerging technique for constraining cosmology and galaxy formation using multi-frequency, low angular resolution maps.Many LIM applications crucially rely on cross-correlations of two line intensity maps, or of intensity maps with galaxy surveys or galaxy/CMB lensing.We present a consistent halo model to predict all these cross-correlations and enable joint analyses, in 3D redshift-space and for 2D projected maps.We extend the conditional luminosity function formalism to the multi-line case, to consistently account for correlated scatter between multiple galaxy line luminosities.This allows us to model the scale-dependent decorrelation between two line intensity maps,a key input for foreground rejection and for approaches that estimate auto-spectra from cross-spectra.This also enables LIM cross-correlations to reveal astrophysical properties of the interstellar medium inacessible with LIM auto-spectra.We expose the different sources of luminosity scatter or “line noise” in LIM, and clarify their effects on the 1-halo and galaxy shot noise terms.In particular, we show that the effective number density of halos can in some cases exceed that of galaxies, counterintuitively.Using observational and simulation input, we implement this halo model for the Hα, [Oiii], Lyman-α, CO and [Cii] lines.We encourage observers and simulators to measure galaxy luminosity correlation coefficients for pairsmore »of lines whenever possible.Our code is publicly available at .In a companion paper, we use this halo model formalism and codeto highlight the degeneracies between cosmology and astrophysics in LIM, and to compare the LIM observables to galaxy detection for a number of surveys.« less
  2. Abstract Line intensity mapping (LIM) proposes to efficiently observe distant faint galaxies and map the matter density field at high redshift.Building upon the formalism in a companion paper,we first highlight the degeneracies between cosmology and astrophysics in LIM.We discuss what can be constrained from measurements of the mean intensity and redshift-space power spectra.With a sufficient spectral resolution, the large-scale redshift-space distortions of the 2-halo term can be measured, helping to break the degeneracy between bias and mean intensity.With a higher spectral resolution, measuring the small-scale redshift-space distortions disentangles the 1-halo and shot noise terms.Cross-correlations with external galaxy catalogs or lensing surveys further break degeneracies.We derive requirements for experiments similar to SPHEREx, HETDEX, CDIM, COMAP and CONCERTO.We then revisit the question of the optimality of the LIM observables, compared to galaxy detection, for astrophysics and cosmology.We use a matched filter to compute the luminosity detection threshold for individual sources.We show that LIM contains information about galaxies too faint to detect, in the high-noise or high-confusion regimes.We quantify the sparsity and clustering bias of the detected sources and compare them to LIM, showing in which cases LIM is a better tracer of the matter density.We extend previous work by answering these questionsmore »as a function of Fourier scale, including for the first time the effect of cosmic variance, pixel-to-pixel correlations, luminosity-dependent clustering bias and redshift-space distortions.« less
  3. ABSTRACT Reconstruction is becoming a crucial procedure of galaxy clustering analysis for future spectroscopic redshift surveys to obtain subper cent level measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale. Most reconstruction algorithms rely on an estimation of the displacement field from the observed galaxy distribution. However, the displacement reconstruction degrades near the survey boundary due to incomplete data and the boundary effects extend to ${\sim}100\, \mathrm{Mpc}/h$ within the interior of the survey volume. We study the possibility of using radial velocities measured from the cosmic microwave background observation through the kinematic Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect to improve performance near the boundary. We find that the boundary effect can be reduced to ${\sim}30-40\, \mathrm{Mpc}/h$ with the velocity information from Simons Observatory. This is especially helpful for dense low redshift surveys where the volume is relatively small and a large fraction of total volume is affected by the boundary.
  4. Abstract We use Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) observations at 98 GHz (2015–2019), 150 GHz (2013–2019), and 229 GHz (2017–2019) to perform a blind shift-and-stack search for Planet 9. The search explores distances from 300 au to 2000 au and velocities up to 6.′3 per year, depending on the distance ( r ). For a 5 Earth-mass Planet 9 the detection limit varies from 325 au to 625 au, depending on the sky location. For a 10 Earth-mass planet the corresponding range is 425 au to 775 au. The predicted aphelion and most likely location of the planet corresponds to the shallower end of these ranges. The search covers the whole 18,000 square degrees of the ACT survey. No significant detections are found, which is used to place limits on the millimeter-wave flux density of Planet 9 over much of its orbit. Overall we eliminate roughly 17% and 9% of the parameter space for a 5 and 10 Earth-mass Planet 9, respectively. These bounds approach those of a recent INPOP19a ephemeris-based analysis, but do not exceed it. We also provide a list of the 10 strongest candidates from the search for possible follow-up. More generally, we exclude (at 95% confidence) themore »presence of an unknown solar system object within our survey area brighter than 4–12 mJy (depending on position) at 150 GHz with current distance 300 au < r < 600 au and heliocentric angular velocity 1 .′ 5 yr − 1 < v · 500 au r < 2 .″ 3 yr − 1 , corresponding to low-to-moderate eccentricities. These limits worsen gradually beyond 600 au, reaching 5–15 mJy by 1500 au.« less
  5. We measured the cross-correlation between galaxy weak lensing data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-1000, DR4) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT, DR4) and the Planck Legacy survey. We used two samples of source galaxies, selected with photometric redshifts, (0.1 <  z B  < 1.2) and (1.2 <  z B  < 2), which produce a combined detection significance of the CMB lensing and weak galaxy lensing cross-spectrum of 7.7 σ . With the lower redshift galaxy sample, for which the cross-correlation was detected at a significance of 5.3 σ , we present joint cosmological constraints on the matter density parameter, Ω m , and the matter fluctuation amplitude parameter, σ 8 , marginalising over three nuisance parameters that model our uncertainty in the redshift and shear calibration as well as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies. We find our measurement to be consistent with the best-fitting flat ΛCDM cosmological models from both Planck and KiDS-1000. We demonstrate the capacity of CMB weak lensing cross-correlations to set constraints on either the redshift or shear calibration by analysing a previously unused high-redshift KiDS galaxy sample (1.2 <  z B  < 2), with the cross-correlation detected at a significance of 7 σ .more »This analysis provides an independent assessment for the accuracy of redshift measurements in a regime that is challenging to calibrate directly owing to known incompleteness in spectroscopic surveys.« less