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  4. The separation and purification of niobium and tantalum, which co-occur in natural sources, is difficult due to their similar physical and chemical properties. The current industrial method for separating Ta/Nb mixtures uses an energy-intensive process with caustic and toxic conditions. It is of interest to develop alternative, fundamental methodologies for the purification of these technologically important metals that improve upon their environmental impact. Herein, we introduce new Ta/Nb imido compounds: M( t BuN)(TriNOx) (1-M) bound by the TriNOx 3− ligand and demonstrate a fundamental, proof-of-concept Ta/Nb separation based on differences in the imido reactivities. Despite the nearly identical structures of 1-M, density functional theory (DFT)-computed electronic structures of 1-M indicate enhanced basic character of the imido group in 1-Ta as compared to 1-Nb. Accordingly, the rate of CO 2 insertion into the MN imido bond of 1-Ta to form a carbamate complex (2-Ta) was selective compared to the analogous, unobserved reaction with 1-Nb. Differences in solubility between the imido and carbamate complexes allowed for separation of the carbamate complex, and led to an efficient Ta/Nb separation ( S Ta/Nb = 404 ± 150) dependent on the kinetic differences in nucleophilicities between the imido moieties in 1-Ta and 1-Nb.
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  7. Entangled two-photon absorption (ETPA) is known to create photoinduced transitions with extremely low light intensity, reducing the risk of phototoxicity compared to classical two-photon absorption. Previous works have predicted the ETPA cross-section, σe, to vary inversely with the product of entanglement time (Te) and entanglement area (Ae), i.e., σe ∼ 1/AeTe. The decreasing σe with increasing Te has limited ETPA to fs-scale Te, while ETPA applications for ps-scale spectroscopy have been unexplored. However, we show that spectral−spatial coupling, which reduces Ae as the SPDC bandwidth (σf ) decreases, plays a significant role in determining σe when Te > ∼100 fs. We experimentally measured σe for zinc tetraphenylporphyrin at several σf values. For type-I ETPA, σe increases as σf decreases down to 0.1 ps−1 . For type-II SPDC, σe is constant for a wide range of σf . With a theoretical analysis of the data, the maximum type-I σe would occur at σf = 0.1 ps−1 (Te = 10 ps). At this maximum, σe is 1 order of magnitude larger than fs-scale σe and 3 orders of magnitude larger than previous predictions of ps-scale σe. By utilizing this spectral−spatial coupling, narrowband type-I ETPA provides a new opportunity to increase the efficiencymore »of measuring nonlinear optical signals and to control photochemical reactions requiring ps temporal precision.« less