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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
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  5. Abstract Numerical relativity (NR) simulations of binary black hole (BBH) systems provide the most accurate gravitational wave predictions, but at a high computational cost—especially when the black holes have nearly extremal spins (i.e. spins near the theoretical upper limit) or very unequal masses. Recently, the technique of reduced order modeling has enabled the construction of ‘surrogate models’ trained on an existing set of NR waveforms. Surrogate models enable the rapid computation of the gravitational waves emitted by BBHs. Typically these models are used for interpolation to compute gravitational waveforms for BBHs with mass ratios and spins within the bounds of the training set. Because simulations with nearly extremal spins are so technically challenging, surrogate models almost always rely on training sets with only moderate spins. In this paper, we explore how well surrogate models can extrapolate to nearly extremal spins when the training set only includes moderate spins. For simplicity, we focus on one-dimensional surrogate models trained on NR simulations of BBHs with equal masses and equal, aligned spins. We assess the performance of the surrogate models at higher spin magnitudes by calculating the mismatches between extrapolated surrogate model waveforms and NR waveforms, by calculating the differences between extrapolated and NR measurements of the remnant black-hole mass, and by testing how the surrogate model improves as the training set extends to higher spins. We find that while extrapolation in this one-dimensional case is viable for current detector sensitivities, surrogate models for next-generation detectors should use training sets that extend to nearly extremal spins. 
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  8. Abstract Detectable electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from compact binary mergers can be produced by outflows from the black hole-accretion disk remnant during the first 10 s after the merger. Two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations with effective viscosity remain an efficient and informative way to model this late-time post-merger evolution. In addition to the inherent approximations of axisymmetry and modeling turbulent angular momentum transport by a viscosity, previous simulations often make other simplifications related to the treatment of the equation of state and turbulent transport effects. In this paper, we test the effect of these modeling choices. By evolving with the same viscosity the exact post-merger initial configuration previously evolved in Newtonian viscous hydrodynamics, we find that the Newtonian treatment provides a good estimate of the disk ejecta mass but underestimates the outflow velocity. We find that the inclusion of heavy nuclei causes a notable increase in ejecta mass. An approximate inclusion of r-process effects has a comparatively smaller effect, except for its designed effect on the composition. Diffusion of composition and entropy, modeling turbulent transport effects, has the overall effect of reducing ejecta mass and giving it a speed with lower average and more tightly-peaked distribution. Also, we find significant acceleration of outflow even at distances beyond 10 000 km, so that thermal wind velocities only asymptote beyond this radius and at higher values than often reported. 
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