skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Schmale, Julia"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth, prompting glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and sea ice decline. These severe consequences induce feedbacks that contribute to amplified warming, affecting weather and climate globally. Aerosols and clouds play a critical role in regulating radiation reaching the Arctic surface. However, the magnitude of their effects is not adequately quantified, especially in the central Arctic where they impact the energy balance over the sea ice. Specifically, aerosols called ice nucleating particles (INPs) remain understudied yet are necessary for cloud ice production and subsequent changes in cloud lifetime, radiative effects, and precipitation. Here, we report observations of INPs in the central Arctic over a full year, spanning the entire sea ice growth and decline cycle. Further, these observations are size-resolved, affording valuable information on INP sources. Our results reveal a strong seasonality of INPs, with lower concentrations in the winter and spring controlled by transport from lower latitudes, to enhanced concentrations of INPs during the summer melt, likely from marine biological production in local open waters. This comprehensive characterization of INPs will ultimately help inform cloud parameterizations in models of all scales.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Over a five-month time window between March and July 2020, scientists deployed two small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) to the central Arctic Ocean as part of legs three and four of the MOSAiC expedition. These sUAS were flown to measure the thermodynamic and kinematic state of the lower atmosphere, including collecting information on temperature, pressure, humidity and winds between the surface and 1 km, as well as to document ice properties, including albedo, melt pond fraction, and open water amounts. The atmospheric state flights were primarily conducted by the DataHawk2 sUAS, which was operated primarily in a profiling manner, while the surface property flights were conducted using the HELiX sUAS, which flew grid patterns, profiles, and hover flights. In total, over 120 flights were conducted and over 48 flight hours of data were collected, sampling conditions that included temperatures as low as −35 °C and as warm as 15 °C, spanning the summer melt season.

  3. Abstract. Even though the Arctic is remote, aerosol properties observed there arestrongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from outside the Arctic. Thisis particularly true for the so-called Arctic haze season (January throughApril). In summer (June through September), when atmospheric transportpatterns change, and precipitation is more frequent, local Arctic sources,i.e., natural sources of aerosols and precursors, play an important role.Over the last few decades, significant reductions in anthropogenic emissionshave taken place. At the same time a large body of literature shows evidencethat the Arctic is undergoing fundamental environmental changes due toclimate forcing, leading to enhanced emissions by natural processes that mayimpact aerosol properties. In this study, we analyze 9 aerosol chemical species and 4 particleoptical properties from 10 Arctic observatories (Alert, Kevo, Pallas,Summit, Thule, Tiksi, Barrow/Utqiaġvik, Villum, and Gruvebadet and ZeppelinObservatory – both at Ny-Ålesund Research Station) to understand changesin anthropogenic and natural aerosol contributions. Variables includeequivalent black carbon, particulate sulfate, nitrate, ammonium,methanesulfonic acid, sodium, iron, calcium and potassium, as well asscattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo andscattering Ångström exponent. First, annual cycles are investigated, which despite anthropogenic emissionreductions still show the Arctic haze phenomenon. Second, long-term trendsare studied using the Mann–Kendall Theil–Sen slope method. We find in total41 significant trendsmore »over full station records, i.e., spanning more than adecade, compared to 26 significant decadal trends. The majority ofsignificantly declining trends is from anthropogenic tracers and occurredduring the haze period, driven by emission changes between 1990 and 2000.For the summer period, no uniform picture of trends has emerged. Twenty-sixpercent of trends, i.e., 19 out of 73, are significant, and of those 5 arepositive and 14 are negative. Negative trends include not only anthropogenictracers such as equivalent black carbon at Kevo, but also natural indicatorssuch as methanesulfonic acid and non-sea-salt calcium at Alert. Positivetrends are observed for sulfate at Gruvebadet. No clear evidence of a significant change in the natural aerosolcontribution can be observed yet. However, testing the sensitivity of theMann–Kendall Theil–Sen method, we find that monotonic changes of around 5 % yr−1 in an aerosol property are needed to detect a significanttrend within one decade. This highlights that long-term efforts well beyonda decade are needed to capture smaller changes. It is particularly importantto understand the ongoing natural changes in the Arctic, where interannualvariability can be high, such as with forest fire emissions and theirinfluence on the aerosol population. To investigate the climate-change-induced influence on the aerosolpopulation and the resulting climate feedback, long-term observations oftracers more specific to natural sources are needed, as well as of particlemicrophysical properties such as size distributions, which can be used toidentify changes in particle populations which are not well captured bymass-oriented methods such as bulk chemical composition.« less
  4. The remote central Arctic during summertime has a pristine atmosphere with very low aerosol particle concentrations. As the region becomes increasingly ice-free during summer, enhanced ocean-atmosphere fluxes of aerosol particles and precursor gases may therefore have impacts on the climate. However, large knowledge gaps remain regarding the sources and physicochemical properties of aerosols in this region. Here, we present insights into the molecular composition of semi-volatile aerosol components collected in September 2018 during the MOCCHA (Microbiology-Ocean-Cloud-Coupling in the High Arctic) campaign as part of the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition with the Swedish Icebreaker Oden . Analysis was performed offline in the laboratory using an iodide High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO-HRToF-CIMS). Our analysis revealed significant signal from organic and sulfur-containing compounds, indicative of marine aerosol sources, with a wide range of carbon numbers and O : C ratios. Several of the sulfur-containing compounds are oxidation products of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a gas released by phytoplankton and ice algae. Comparison of the time series of particulate and gas-phase DMS oxidation products did not reveal a significant correlation, indicative of the different lifetimes of precursor and oxidation products in the different phases. This ismore »the first time the FIGAERO-HRToF-CIMS was used to investigate the composition of aerosols in the central Arctic. The detailed information on the molecular composition of Arctic aerosols presented here can be used for the assessment of aerosol solubility and volatility, which is relevant for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions.« less
  5. This commentary paper from the recently formed International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Southern Hemisphere Working Group outlines key issues in atmospheric composition research that particularly impact the Southern Hemisphere. In this article, we present a broad overview of many of the challenges for understanding atmospheric chemistry in the Southern Hemisphere, before focusing in on the most significant factors that differentiate it from the Northern Hemisphere. We present sections on the importance of biogenic emissions and fires in the Southern Hemisphere, showing that these emissions often dominate over anthropogenic emissions in many regions. We then describe how these and other factors influence air quality in different parts of the Southern Hemisphere. Finally, we describe the key role of the Southern Ocean in influencing atmospheric chemistry and conclude with a description of the aims and scope of the newly formed IGAC Southern Hemisphere Working Group.
  6. Abstract. Ambient concentrations of ice-forming particles measured during ship expeditions are collected and summarised with the aim of determining the spatial distribution and variability in ice nuclei in oceanic regions.The presented data from literature and previously unpublished data from over 23 months of ship-based measurements stretch from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean and include a circumnavigation of Antarctica. In comparison to continental observations, ship-based measurements of ambient ice nuclei show 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower mean concentrations. To quantify the geographical variability in oceanic areas, the concentration range of potential ice nuclei in different climate zones is analysed by meridionally dividing the expedition tracks into tropical, temperate and polar climate zones. We find that concentrations of ice nuclei in these meridional zones follow temperature spectra with similar slopes but vary in absolute concentration. Typically, the frequency with which specific concentrations of ice nuclei are observed at a certain temperature follows a log-normal distribution. A consequence of the log-normal distribution is that the mean concentration is higher than the most frequently measured concentration. Finally, the potential contribution of ship exhaust to the measured ice nuclei concentration on board research vessels is analysed as function of temperature. We find amore »sharp onset of the influence at approximately −36 ∘C but none at warmer temperatures that could bias ship-based measurements.« less
  7. With the Arctic rapidly changing, the needs to observe, understand, and model the changes are essential. To support these needs, an annual cycle of observations of atmospheric properties, processes, and interactions were made while drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the comprehensive program to document and characterize all aspects of the Arctic atmospheric system in unprecedented detail, using a variety of approaches, and across multiple scales. These measurements were coordinated with other observational teams to explore cross-cutting and coupled interactions with the Arctic Ocean, sea ice, and ecosystem through a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes. This overview outlines the breadth and complexity of the atmospheric research program, which was organized into 4 subgroups: atmospheric state, clouds and precipitation, gases and aerosols, and energy budgets. Atmospheric variability over the annual cycle revealed important influences from a persistent large-scale winter circulation pattern, leading to some storms with pressure and winds that were outside the interquartile range of past conditions suggested by long-term reanalysis. Similarly, the MOSAiC location was warmer and wetter in summermore »than the reanalysis climatology, in part due to its close proximity to the sea ice edge. The comprehensiveness of the observational program for characterizing and analyzing atmospheric phenomena is demonstrated via a winter case study examining air mass transitions and a summer case study examining vertical atmospheric evolution. Overall, the MOSAiC atmospheric program successfully met its objectives and was the most comprehensive atmospheric measurement program to date conducted over the Arctic sea ice. The obtained data will support a broad range of coupled-system scientific research and provide an important foundation for advancing multiscale modeling capabilities in the Arctic.« less