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  1. Abstract

    According to the ‘selfish herd’ hypothesis, most seabird species breed colonially so that individuals can decrease their risk of predation by forming compact groups. However, costs and benefits associated with colonial breeding may not be evenly distributed among individuals within a colony. At Adélie penguin colonies, individuals nesting on the periphery of subcolonies (distinct groups of nests) may experience higher rates of nest predation by south polar skuas, and thus the optimal aggregation pattern for Adélie penguins may be within groups that minimize the proportion of edge nests. Nevertheless, some penguins choose to nest solitarily, at significant distances from conspecifics. We tracked 50 of these “solitary-nesting” Adélie penguins at Cape Crozier, a large colony on Ross Island, during the 2021 nesting season and compared their breeding success to individuals nesting within subcolony boundaries. We found that both solitary and subcolony nests successfully raised chicks large enough to join crèches and left unattended by adults. However, chicks from solitary nests exhibited a rate of mortality more than six times higher during the transition from nest brooding/guarding to crèche stage. In the 2022 nesting season, we found that solitary nests which had previously hosted actively breeding penguins were more likely to be re-occupied. Solitary nesting therefore appears to be a less-successful alternative to breeding within subcolonies, but enough individuals could be successful with this approach to maintain the apparently disadvantageous behavior and effectively pioneer previously unused locations, possibly including eventual new colony locations.

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  2. Abstract

    We propose a new measurement of the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering at DESY. The purpose is to determine the contributions beyond single-photon exchange, which are essential for the Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) description of the most fundamental process in hadronic physics. By utilizing a 20 cm long liquid hydrogen target in conjunction with the extracted beam from the DESY synchrotron, we can achieve an average luminosity of$$2.12\times 10^{35}$$2.12×1035 cm$$^{-2}\cdot $$-2·s$$^{-1}$$-1 ($$\approx 200$$200times the luminosity achieved by OLYMPUS). The proposed two-photon exchange experiment (TPEX) entails a commissioning run at a beam energy of 2 GeV, followed by measurements at 3 GeV, thereby providing new data up to$$Q^2=4.6$$Q2=4.6 (GeV/c)$$^2$$2(twice the range of current measurements). We present and discuss the proposed experimental setup, run plan, and expectations.

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  3. Sophie Martin (Ed.)
    In their Letter to Molecular Biology of the Cell, Schmoller et al. (2022) raise questions about the results and conclusions presented in our published studies (Dorsey et al., 2018; Litsios et al., 2019). Here, we respond to the criticisms of Schmoller et al. and demonstrate how wide-field fluorescence microscopy experiments to determine nuclear Whi5 concentration dynamics can be confounded by uncontrolled effects, which include photobleaching, partial confocal effects, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic volume scaling. Further, we provide additional experimental evidence demonstrating that nuclear Whi5 concentration is essentially constant as cells grow in G1 phase and that Cln3 and protein synthesis dynamics occur as reported in Litsios et al. (2019). These results suggest that instead of being triggered by dilution of the stable inhibitor Whi5, Start is rather primarily controlled by the increase in protein synthesis rate in G1 and the concomitant production of the unstable activator Cln3. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2025
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  7. The double-spin-polarization observable E for γ p → pπ0 has been measured with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at photon beam energies Eγ from 0.367 to 2.173 GeV (corresponding to center-ofmass energies from 1.240 to 2.200 GeV) for pion center-ofmass angles, cos θc.m. π0 , between − 0.86 and 0.82. These new CLAS measurements cover a broader energy range and have smaller uncertainties compared to previous CBELSA data and provide an important independent check on systematics. These measurements are compared to predictions as well as new global fits from The George Washington University, Mainz, and Bonn-Gatchina groups. Their inclusion in multipole analyses will allow us to refine our understanding of the single-pion production contribution to the Gerasimov-Drell- Hearn sum rule and improve the determination of resonance properties, which will be presented in a future publication. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024