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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT We study the projected spatial offset between the ultraviolet continuum and Ly α emission for 65 lensed and unlensed galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (5 ≤ z ≤ 7), the first such study at these redshifts, in order to understand the potential for these offsets to confuse estimates of the Ly α properties of galaxies observed in slit spectroscopy. While we find that ∼40 per cent of galaxies in our sample show significant projected spatial offsets ($|\Delta _{\rm {Ly}\alpha -\rm {UV}}|$), we find a relatively modest average projected offset of $|\widetilde{\Delta }_{\rm {Ly}\alpha -\rm {UV}}|$  = 0.61 ± 0.08 proper kpc for the entire sample. A small fraction of our sample, ∼10 per cent, exhibit offsets in excess of 2 proper kpc, with offsets seen up to ∼4 proper kpc, sizes that are considerably larger than the effective radii of typical galaxies at these redshifts. An internal comparison and a comparison to studies at lower redshift yielded no significant evidence of evolution of $|\Delta _{\rm {Ly}\alpha -\rm {UV}}|$ with redshift. In our sample, ultraviolet (UV)-bright galaxies ($\widetilde{L_{\mathrm{ UV}}}/L^{\ast }_{\mathrm{ UV}}=0.67$) showed offsets a factor of three greater than their fainter counterparts ($\widetilde{L_{\mathrm{ UV}}}/L^{\ast }_{\mathrm{ UV}}=0.10$), 0.89 ± 0.18 versus 0.27 ± 0.05 proper kpc, respectively. The presence of companion galaxies and early stage merging activitymore »appeared to be unlikely causes of these offsets. Rather, these offsets appear consistent with a scenario in which internal anisotropic processes resulting from stellar feedback, which is stronger in UV-brighter galaxies, facilitate Ly α fluorescence and/or backscattering from nearby or outflowing gas. The reduction in the Ly α flux due to offsets was quantified. It was found that the differential loss of Ly α photons for galaxies with average offsets is not, if corrected for, a limiting factor for all but the narrowest slit widths (<0.4 arcsec). However, for the largest offsets, if they are mostly perpendicular to the slit major axis, slit losses were found to be extremely severe in cases where slit widths of ≤1 arcsec were employed, such as those planned for James Webb Space Telescope/NIRSpec observations.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present a catalogue of 22 755 objects with slitless, optical, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The data cover ∼220 sq. arcmin to 7-orbit (∼10 ks) depth in 20 parallel pointings of the Advanced Camera for Survey’s G800L grism. The fields are located 6 arcmin away from 10 massive galaxy clusters in the HFF and CLASH footprints. 13 of the fields have ancillary HST imaging from these or other programs to facilitate a large number of applications, from studying metal distributions at z ∼ 0.5, to quasars at z ∼ 4, to the star formation histories of hundreds of galaxies in between. The spectroscopic catalogue has a median redshift of 〈z〉 = 0.60 with a median uncertainty of $\Delta z / (1+z)\lesssim 2{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at $F814\mathit{ W}\lesssim 23$ AB. Robust continuum detections reach a magnitude fainter. The 5 σ limiting line flux is $f_{\rm lim}\approx 5\times 10^{-17}\rm ~erg~s^{-1}~cm^{-2}$ and half of all sources have 50 per cent of pixels contaminated at ≲1 per cent. All sources have 1D and 2D spectra, line fluxes/uncertainties and identifications, redshift probability distributions, spectral models, and derived narrow-band emission-line maps from the Grism Redshift and Line Analysis tool (grizli). We provide other basic sample characterizations,more »show data examples, and describe sources and potential investigations of interest. All data and products will be available online along with software to facilitate their use.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 15, 2022
  5. Abstract We report on a long-lasting, elevated gamma-ray flux state from VER J0521+211 observed by VERITAS, MAGIC, and Fermi-LAT in 2013 and 2014. The peak integral flux above 200 GeV measured with the nightly binned light curve is (8.8 ± 0.4) × 10 −7 photons m −2 s −1 , or ∼37% of the Crab Nebula flux. Multiwavelength observations from X-ray, UV, and optical instruments are also presented. A moderate correlation between the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray fluxes was observed, and the X-ray spectrum appeared harder when the flux was higher. Using the gamma-ray spectrum and four models of the extragalactic background light (EBL), a conservative 95% confidence upper limit on the redshift of the source was found to be z ≤ 0.31. Unlike the gamma-ray and X-ray bands, the optical flux did not increase significantly during the studied period compared to the archival low-state flux. The spectral variability from optical to X-ray bands suggests that the synchrotron peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) may become broader during flaring states, which can be adequately described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model varying the high-energy end of the underlying particle spectrum. The synchrotron peak frequency of the SED and themore »radio morphology of the jet from the MOJAVE program are consistent with the source being an intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023