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  1. Abstract We present WDJ220838.73+454434.04 (hereafter WD2208+454), a wide, co-moving white dwarf companion to the eclipsing binary system, AR Lacertae. The companion was discovered through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science collaboration. It has a separation of 21.″9 on the sky from the central eclipsing pair, translating to a projected separation of ∼930 au. We present a review of the physical properties and orbital parameters of this new addition to the system.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 15, 2023
  2. Abstract We present the discovery of 34 comoving systems containing an ultracool dwarf found by means of the NOIRLab Source Catalog (NSC) DR2. NSC’s angular resolution of ∼ 1″ allows for the detection of small separation binaries with significant proper motions. We used the catalog’s accurate proper motion measurements to identify the companions by cross-matching a previously compiled list of brown dwarf candidates with NSC DR2. The comoving pairs consist of either a very low-mass star and an ultracool companion, or a white dwarf and an ultracool companion. The estimated spectral types of the primaries are in the K and M dwarf regimes, those of the secondaries in the M, L, and T dwarf regimes. We calculated angular separations between ∼2″ and ∼ 56″, parallactic distances between ∼43 and ∼261 pc, and projected physical separations between ∼169 and ∼8487 au. The lowest measured total proper motion is 97 mas yr −1 , with the highest 314 mas yr −1 . Tangential velocities range from ∼23 to ∼187 km s −1 . We also determined comoving probabilities, estimated mass ratios, and calculated binding energies for each system. We found no indication of possible binarity for any component of the 34 systemsmore »in the published literature. The discovered systems can contribute to the further study of the formation and evolution of low-mass systems as well as to the characterization of cool substellar objects.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2023
  3. Abstract We present medium-resolution ( λ /Δ λ  = 2700), near-infrared spectral standards for field L0–L2, L4, and L7–Y0 dwarfs obtained with the Near-Infrared Echellette Spectrometer on the Keck II 10 m telescope. These standards allow for detailed spectral comparative analysis of cold brown dwarfs discovered through ongoing ground-based projects such as Backyard Worlds: Planet 9, and forthcoming space-based spectral surveys such as the James Webb Space Telescope, SPHEREx, Euclid, and the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2023
  4. Abstract

    We present the discovery of VVV J165507.19−421755.5, a mid-T dwarf found through ongoing unWISE-based proper motion searches. A near-infrared spectrum of this object obtained with the NIRES instrument on the Keck II telescope indicates a spectral classification of T5. Using data from the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) catalog with a 9 year baseline, we measure a proper motion of (μαcos(δ),μδ) = (−631.0 ± 1.3, −315.0 ± 1.4) mas yr−1and a trigonometric parallax ofπabs = 66.0 ± 4.8 mas, corresponding to a distance of 15.2 ± 1.1 pc. The trigonometric parallax agrees well with our photometric distance estimate (16.13.9+5.1pc) assuming that VVV J165507.19−421755.5 is a single T5 dwarf. VVV J165507.19−421755.5 is a new member of the 20 parsec census.

  5. Abstract We present the discovery of CWISE J052306.42−015355.4, which was found as a faint, significant proper-motion object (0.″52 ± 0.″08 yr −1 ) using machine-learning tools on the unWISE re-processing of time series images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Using the CatWISE2020 W1 and W2 magnitudes along with a J -band detection from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, the location of CWISE J052306.42−015355.4 on the W1 − W2 versus J − W2 diagram best matches that of other known, or suspected, extreme T subdwarfs. As there is currently very little knowledge concerning extreme T subdwarfs we estimate a rough distance of ≤68 pc, which results in a tangential velocity of ≤167 km s −1 , both of which are tentative. A measured parallax is greatly needed to test these values. We also estimate a metallicity of −1.5 < [M/H] < −0.5 using theoretical predictions.
  6. Abstract We have used data from the UKIRT Hemisphere Survey to search for substellar members of the Hyades cluster. Our search recovered several known substellar Hyades members, and two known brown dwarfs that we suggest may be members based on a new kinematic analysis. We uncovered thirteen new substellar Hyades candidates, and obtained near-infrared follow-up spectroscopy of each with IRTF/SpeX. Six candidates with spectral types between M7 and L0 are ruled out as potential members based on their photometric distances (≳100 pc). The remaining seven candidates, with spectral types between L5 and T4, are all potential Hyades members, with five showing strong membership probabilities based on BANYAN Σ and a convergent point analysis. Distances and radial velocities are still needed to confirm Hyades membership. If confirmed, these would be some of the lowest mass free-floating members of the Hyades yet known, with masses as low as ∼30 M Jup . An analysis of all known substellar Hyades candidates shows evidence that the full extent of the Hyades has yet to be probed for low-mass members, and more would likely be recovered with deeper photometric and astrometric investigations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 29, 2023
  7. Abstract We present the discovery of a low-mass comoving system found by means of the NOIRLab Source Catalog DR2. The system consists of the high proper-motion star LEHPM 5005 and an ultracool companion 2MASS J22410186-4500298 with an estimated spectral type of L2. The primary (LEHPM 5005) is likely a mid-M dwarf but over-luminous for its color, indicating a possible close equal mass binary. According to the Gaia EDR3 parallax of the primary, the system is located at a distance of 58 ± 2 pc. We calculated an angular separation of 7.″2 between both components, resulting in a projected physical separation of 418 au.
  8. Abstract We present Gaia DR2 2144465183642117888, a previously unknown, wide white dwarf companion to the HP Dra eclipsing binary system. This companion was discovered through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science collaboration. It has separation of 14.″4 on the sky from the central eclipsing pair, translating to a projected separation of ∼1140 au. We present a review of the orbit and physical parameters of all the components in this now triple system.
  9. Abstract In an effort to identify nearby and unusual cold objects in the solar neighborhood, we searched for previously unidentified moving objects using CatWISE2020 proper motion data combined with machine learning methods. We paired the motion candidates with their counterparts in 2MASS, UHS, and VHS. Then we searched for white dwarf, brown dwarf, and subdwarf outliers on the resulting color–color diagrams. This resulted in the discovery of 16 new dwarfs, including 2 nearby M dwarfs (<30 pc), a possible young L dwarf, a high-motion early-T dwarf, and 3 later-T dwarfs. This research represents a step forward in completing the census of the Sun’s neighbors.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 7, 2023
  10. Abstract While stars are often found in binary systems, brown dwarf binaries are much rarer. Brown dwarf–brown dwarf pairs are typically difficult to resolve because they often have very small separations. Using brown dwarfs discovered with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) via the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science project, we inspected other, higher-resolution, sky surveys for overlooked cold companions. During this process, we discovered the brown dwarf binary system CWISE J0146−0508AB, which we find has a very small chance alignment probability based on the similar proper motions of the components of the system. Using follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy with Keck/NIRES, we determined component spectral types of L4 and L8 (blue), making CWISE J0146−0508AB one of only a few benchmark systems with a blue L dwarf. At an estimated distance of ∼40 pc, CWISE J0146−0508AB has a projected separation of ∼129 au, making it the widest-separation brown dwarf pair found to date. We find that such a wide separation for a brown dwarf binary may imply formation in a low-density star-forming region.