skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Schneider, B."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract We present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the afterglow of GRB 221009A, the brightest gamma-ray burst (GRB) ever observed. This includes the first mid-IR spectra of any GRB, obtained with JWST/Near Infrared Spectrograph (0.6–5.5 micron) and Mid-Infrared Instrument (5–12 micron), 12 days after the burst. Assuming that the intrinsic spectral slope is a single power law, with F ν ∝ ν − β , we obtain β ≈ 0.35, modified by substantial dust extinction with A V = 4.9. This suggests extinction above the notional Galactic value, possibly due to patchy extinction within the Milky Way or dust in the GRB host galaxy. It further implies that the X-ray and optical/IR regimes are not on the same segment of the synchrotron spectrum of the afterglow. If the cooling break lies between the X-ray and optical/IR, then the temporal decay rates would only match a post-jet-break model, with electron index p < 2, and with the jet expanding into a uniform ISM medium. The shape of the JWST spectrum is near-identical in the optical/near-IR to X-SHOOTER spectroscopy obtained at 0.5 days and to later time observations with HST. The lack of spectral evolutionmore »suggests that any accompanying supernova (SN) is either substantially fainter or bluer than SN 1998bw, the proto-type GRB-SN. Our HST observations also reveal a disk-like host galaxy, viewed close to edge-on, that further complicates the isolation of any SN component. The host galaxy appears rather typical among long-GRB hosts and suggests that the extreme properties of GRB 221009A are not directly tied to its galaxy-scale environment.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. The geosciences are one of the least diverse disciplines in the United States, despite the field's relevance to livelihoods and local and global economies. Bias, discrimination, and harassment present serious hurdles to diversifying the field. These behaviors persist due to historical structures of exclusion, severe power imbalances, unique challenges associated with geoscientist stereotypes, and a culture of impunity that tolerates exclusionary behaviors and marginalization of scholars from underserved groups. We summarize recent research on exclusionary behaviors that create hostile climates and contribute to persistent low retention of diverse groups in the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. We then discuss recent initiatives in the US by geoscience professional societies and organizations, including the National Science Foundation-supported ADVANCEGeo Partnership, to improve diversity, equity, and inclusion by improving workplace climate. Social networks and professional organizations can transform scientific culture through providing opportunities for mentorship and community building and counteracting professional isolation that can result from experiencing hostile behaviors, codifying ethical practice, and advocating for policy change. We conclude with a call for a reexamination of current institutional structures, processes, and practices for a transformational and equitable scientific enterprise. To be truly successful, cultural and behavioral changes need tomore »be accompanied by reeducation about the historical political structures of academic institutions to start conversations about the real change that has to happen for a transformational and equitable scientific enterprise.« less
  3. Augmented reality (AR) is a powerful visualization tool to support learning of scientific concepts across learners of various ages. AR can make information otherwise invisible visible in the physical world in real-time. In this study, we are looking at a subset of data from a larger study (N=120), in which participant pairs interacted with an augmented sound producing speaker. We explored the learning behaviors in eight pairs of learners (N=16) who participated in an unstructured physics activity under two conditions: with or without AR. Comparing behaviors between the two experimental conditions, we found that AR affected learning in four different ways: participants in the AR condition (1) learned more about visual concepts (ex: magnetic field structures) but learned less about nonvisual content (ex: relationship between electricity and physical movement); (2) stopped exploring the system faster than NonAR participants; (3) used less aids in exploration and teaching; and (4) spent less time in teaching their collaborators. We discuss implications of those results for designing collaborative learning activities with augmented reality.
  4. Drawing from social capital theory, this study examines the extent to which stable versus new friendship patterns affect low income students’ educational aspirations in urban and rural high schools. Using whole school sociometric data (744 high school students over a two-year period), this study applies a social influence model to determine the effects of stable and newly established friendships on conformity regarding college-going aspirations. Findings indicate that urban students have more new friends and their educational aspirations increased, conforming to those of their newly established friends. In contrast, rural students have more stable friendships than the urban students and their educational aspirations conformed to those of their stable friends. This work shows that rural students tend not to change their school network size or nominations. However, urban students are more willing to include new students in their school networks which have a positive effect on raising their educational aspirations.
  5. This study examines the impact of the college ambition program (CAP) which is designed to increase postsecondary enrollment particularly for low-income and minority high school students. CAP provides course counseling, financial information, college visits, tutoring, and builds social networks with staff and other students. To measure the impact of the intervention, a quasi-experimental design with panel college enrollment survey data complemented by state administrative data were analyzed. Results indicate that the CAP increased 2-year college attendance for low-income and minority students by 9 %. These results underscore the need to differentiate the features of intervention programs and types of channels in guiding student’s choice of enrolling in a 2-year versus 4-year college.