skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Schneider, David"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. Cancer cells require robust ribosome biogenesis to maintain rapid cell growth during tumorigenesis. Because RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is the first and rate-limiting step of ribosome biogenesis, it has emerged as a promising anti-cancer target. Over the last decade, novel cancer therapeutics targeting Pol I have progressed to clinical trials. BMH-21 is a first-in-class small molecule that inhibits Pol I transcription and represses cancer cell growth. Several recent studies have uncovered key mechanisms by which BMH-21 inhibits ribosome biosynthesis but the selectivity of BMH-21 for Pol I has not been directly measured. Here, we quantify the effects of BMH-21 on Pol I, RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and RNA polymerase III (Pol III) in vitro using purified components. We found that BMH-21 directly impairs nucleotide addition by Pol I, with no or modest effect on Pols II and III, respectively. Additionally, we found that BMH-21 does not affect the stability of any of the Pols’ elongation complexes. These data demonstrate that BMH-21 directly exploits unique vulnerabilities of Pol I.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We present the discovery of a new double-detonation progenitor system consisting of a hot subdwarf B (sdB) binary with a white dwarf companion with aPorb= 76.34179(2) minutes orbital period. Spectroscopic observations are consistent with an sdB star during helium core burning residing on the extreme horizontal branch. Chimera light curves are dominated by ellipsoidal deformation of the sdB star and a weak eclipse of the companion white dwarf. Combining spectroscopic and light curve fits, we find a low-mass sdB star,MsdB= 0.383 ± 0.028Mwith a massive white dwarf companion,MWD= 0.725 ± 0.026M. From the eclipses we find a blackbody temperature for the white dwarf of 26,800 K resulting in a cooling age of ≈25 Myr whereas ourMESAmodel predicts an sdB age of ≈170 Myr. We conclude that the sdB formed first through stable mass transfer followed by a common envelope which led to the formation of the white dwarf companion ≈25 Myr ago. Using theMESAstellar evolutionary code we find that the sdB star will start mass transfer in ≈6 Myr and in ≈60 Myr the white dwarf will reach a total mass of 0.92Mwith a thick helium layer of 0.17M. This will lead to a detonation that will likely destroymore »the white dwarf in a peculiar thermonuclear supernova. PTF1 J2238+7430 is only the second confirmed candidate for a double-detonation thermonuclear supernova. Using both systems we estimate that at least ≈1% of white dwarf thermonuclear supernovae originate from sdB+WD binaries with thick helium layers, consistent with the small number of observed peculiar thermonuclear explosions.

    « less
  4. The sequence of the DNA template has long been thought to influence the rate of transcription by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, but the influence of DNA sequence on transcription elongation properties of eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (Pol I) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has not been defined. In this study, we observe changes in dinucleotide production, transcription elongation complex stability, and Pol I pausing in vitro in response to downstream DNA. In vitro studies demonstrate that AT-rich downstream DNA enhances pausing by Pol I and inhibits Pol I nucleolytic cleavage activity. Analysis of Pol I native elongating transcript sequencing data in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that these downstream sequence elements influence Pol I in vivo . Native elongating transcript sequencing studies reveal that Pol I occupancy increases as downstream AT content increases and decreases as downstream GC content increases. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the downstream DNA sequence directly impacts the kinetics of transcription elongation prior to the sequence entering the active site of Pol I both in vivo and in vitro .