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  1. Abstract We created the APOGEE-GALEX-Gaia catalog to study white dwarf (WD) binaries. This database aims to create a minimally biased sample of WD binary systems identified from a combination of GALEX, Gaia, and APOGEE data to increase the number of WD binaries with orbital parameters and chemical compositions. We identify 3414 sources as WD binary candidates, with nondegenerate companions of spectral types between F and M, including main-sequence stars, main-sequence binaries, subgiants, sub-subgiants, red giants, and red clump stars. Among our findings are (a) a total of 1806 systems having inferred WD radii R < 25 R ⊕ , which constitute a more reliable group of WD binary candidates within the main sample; (b) a difference in the metallicity distribution function between WD binary candidates and the control sample of most luminous giants ( M H < −3.0); (c) the existence of a population of sub-subgiants with WD companions; (d) evidence for shorter periods in binaries that contain WDs compared to those that do not, as shown by the cumulative distributions of APOGEE radial velocity shifts; (e) evidence for systemic orbital evolution in a sample of 252 WD binaries with orbital periods, based on differences in the period distribution betweenmore »systems with red clump, main-sequence binary, and sub-subgiant companions and systems with main-sequence or red giant companions; and (f) evidence for chemical enrichment during common envelope (CE) evolution, shown by lower metallicities in wide WD binary candidates ( P > 100 days) compared to post-CE ( P < 100 days) WD binary candidates.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 6, 2023
  2. Abstract

    We report an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with an extremely high equivalent width (EW), EWLyα+N V,rest≳921Å, in the rest frame, atz∼ 2.24 in the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Survey (HETDEX), as a representative case of the high-EW AGN population. The continuum level is a nondetection in the HETDEX spectrum; thus the measured EW is a lower limit. The source is detected with significant emission lines (>7σ) at Lyα+ Nvλ1241, Civλ1549, and a moderate emission line (∼4σ) at Heiiλ1640 within the wavelength coverage of HETDEX (3500–5500 Å). Ther-band magnitude is 24.57 from the Hyper Suprime-Cam-HETDEX joint survey with a detection limit ofr= 25.12 at 5σ. The Lyαemission line spans a clearly resolved region of ∼10″ (85 kpc) in diameter. The Lyαline profile is strongly double peaked. The spectral decomposed blue gas and red gas Lyαemission are separated by ∼1.″2 (10.1 kpc) with a line-of-sight velocity offset of ∼1100 km s−1. This source is probably an obscured AGN with powerful winds.

  3. Abstract We present the first active galactic nuclei (AGN) catalog of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Survey (HETDEX) observed between 2017 January and 2020 June. HETDEX is an ongoing spectroscopic survey (3500–5500 Å) with no target preselection based on magnitudes, colors or morphologies, enabling us to select AGN based solely on their spectral features. Both luminous quasars and low-luminosity Seyferts are found in our catalog. AGN candidates are selected with at least two significant AGN emission lines, such as the Ly α and C iv λ 1549 line pair, or with a single broad emission line with FWHM > 1000 km s −1 . Each source is further confirmed by visual inspections. This catalog contains 5322 AGN, covering an effective sky coverage of 30.61 deg 2 . A total of 3733 of these AGN have secure redshifts, and we provide redshift estimates for the remaining 1589 single broad-line AGN with no crossmatched spectral redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 14 of QSOs. The redshift range of the AGN catalog is 0.25 < z < 4.32, with a median of z = 2.1. The bolometric luminosity range is 10 9 –10 14 L ☉ with a medianmore »of 10 12 L ☉ . The median r -band magnitude of our AGN catalog is 21.6 mag, with 34% having r > 22.5, and 2.6% reaching the detection limit at r ∼ 26 mag of the deepest imaging surveys we searched. We also provide a composite spectrum of the AGN sample covering 700–4400 Å.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT

    We measure the small-scale clustering of the Data Release 16 extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Luminous Red Galaxy sample, corrected for fibre-collisions using Pairwise Inverse Probability weights, which give unbiased clustering measurements on all scales. We fit to the monopole and quadrupole moments and to the projected correlation function over the separation range $7-60\, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ with a model based on the aemulus cosmological emulator to measure the growth rate of cosmic structure, parametrized by fσ8. We obtain a measurement of fσ8(z = 0.737) = 0.408 ± 0.038, which is 1.4σ lower than the value expected from 2018 Planck data for a flat ΛCDM model, and is more consistent with recent weak-lensing measurements. The level of precision achieved is 1.7 times better than more standard measurements made using only the large-scale modes of the same sample. We also fit to the data using the full range of scales $0.1\text{--}60\, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ modelled by the aemulus cosmological emulator and find a 4.5σ tension in the amplitude of the halo velocity field with the Planck + ΛCDM model, driven by a mismatch on the non-linear scales. This may not be cosmological in origin, and could be due to a breakdown in the Halo Occupation Distribution model used inmore »the emulator. Finally, we perform a robust analysis of possible sources of systematics, including the effects of redshift uncertainty and incompleteness due to target selection that were not included in previous analyses fitting to clustering measurements on small scales.

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  5. Abstract

    We present the Lyαemission line luminosity function (LF) of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the first release of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Survey (HETDEX) AGN catalog. The AGN are selected either by emission line pairs characteristic of AGN or by a single broad emission line, free of any photometric preselections (magnitude/color/morphology). The sample consists of 2346 AGN spanning 1.88 <z< 3.53, covering an effective area of 30.61 deg2. Approximately 2.6% of the HETDEX AGN are not detected at >5σconfidence atr∼ 26 in the deepestr-band images we have searched. The Lyαline luminosity ranges from ∼1042.3to 1045.9erg s−1. Our LyαLF shows a turnover luminosity with opposite slopes on the bright end and the faint end: The space density is highest atLLyα=1043.4erg s−1. We explore the evolution of the AGN LF over a broader redshift range (0.8 <z< 3); constructing the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) LF with the 1450 Å monochromatic luminosity of the power-law component of the continuum (M1450) fromM1450∼ −18 to −27.5. We divide the sample into three redshift bins (z∼ 1.5, 2.1, and 2.6). In all three redshift bins, our UV LFs indicate that the space density of AGN is highest at themore »turnover luminosityM1450*with opposite slopes on the bright end and the faint end. TheM1450LFs in the three redshift bins can be well fit with a luminosity evolution and density evolution model: the turnover luminosity (M1450*) increases, and the turnover density (Φ*) decreases with increasing redshift.

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  6. Abstract

    We present extended Lyαemission out to 800 kpc of 1034 [Oiii]-selected galaxies at redshifts 1.9 <z< 2.35 using the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. The locations and redshifts of the galaxies are taken from the 3D-HST survey. The median-stacked surface brightness profile of the Lyαemission of the [Oiii]-selected galaxies agrees well with that of 968 bright Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) atr> 40 kpc from the galaxy centers. The surface brightness in the inner parts (r< 10 kpc) around the [Oiii]-selected galaxies, however, is 10 times fainter than that of the LAEs. Our results are consistent with the notion that photons dominating the outer regions of the Lyαhalos are not produced in the central galaxies but originate outside of them.

  7. Abstract

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) can vary significantly in their rest-frame optical/UV continuum emission, and with strong associated changes in broad line emission, on much shorter timescales than predicted by standard models of accretion disks around supermassive black holes. Most suchchanging-lookorchanging-stateAGN—and at higher luminosities, changing-look quasars (CLQs)—have been found via spectroscopic follow-up of known quasars showing strong photometric variability. The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) includes repeat spectroscopy of large numbers of previously known quasars, many selected irrespective of photometric variability, and with spectral epochs separated by months to decades. Our visual examination of these repeat spectra for strong broad line variability yielded 61 newly discovered CLQ candidates. We quantitatively compare spectral epochs to measure changes in continuum and Hβbroad line emission, finding 19 CLQs, of which 15 are newly recognized. The parent sample includes only broad line quasars, so our study tends to find objects that have dimmed, i.e., turn-off CLQs. However, we nevertheless find four turn-on CLQs that meet our criteria, albeit with broad lines in both dim and bright states. We study the response of Hβand Mgiiemission lines to continuum changes. The Eddington ratios of CLQs are low, and/or theirmore »Hβbroad line width is large relative to the overall quasar population. Repeat quasar spectroscopy in the upcoming SDSS-V black hole Mapper program will reveal significant numbers of CLQs, enhancing our understanding of the frequency and duty cycle of such strong variability, and the physics and dynamics of the phenomenon.

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  8. Abstract Individual chemical abundances for 14 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) are derived for a sample of M dwarfs using high-resolution, near-infrared H -band spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The quantitative analysis included synthetic spectra computed with 1D LTE plane-parallel MARCS models using the APOGEE Data Release 17 line list to determine chemical abundances. The sample consists of 11 M dwarfs in binary systems with warmer FGK dwarf primaries and 10 measured interferometric angular diameters. To minimize atomic diffusion effects, [X/Fe] ratios are used to compare M dwarfs in binary systems and literature results for their warmer primary stars, indicating good agreement (<0.08 dex) for all studied elements. The mean abundance difference in primaries minus this work’s M dwarfs is −0.05 ± 0.03 dex. It indicates that M dwarfs in binary systems are a reliable way to calibrate empirical relationships. A comparison with abundance, effective temperature, and surface gravity results from the APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) Data Release 16 finds a systematic offset of [M/H], T eff , log g = +0.21 dex, −50 K, andmore »0.30 dex, respectively, although ASPCAP [X/Fe] ratios are generally consistent with this study. The metallicities of the M dwarfs cover the range of [Fe/H] = −0.9 to +0.4 and are used to investigate Galactic chemical evolution via trends of [X/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H]. The behavior of the various elemental abundances [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] agrees well with the corresponding trends derived from warmer FGK dwarfs, demonstrating that the APOGEE spectra can be used to examine Galactic chemical evolution using large samples of selected M dwarfs.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. ABSTRACT We present the joint analysis of Neutral Hydrogen (H i) Intensity Mapping observations with three galaxy samples: the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) and Emission Line Galaxy (ELG) samples from the eBOSS survey, and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey sample. The H i intensity maps are Green Bank Telescope observations of the redshifted $21\rm cm$ emission on $100 \, {\rm deg}^2$ covering the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0. We process the data by separating and removing the foregrounds present in the radio frequencies with FastI ICA. We verify the quality of the foreground separation with mock realizations, and construct a transfer function to correct for the effects of foreground removal on the H i signal. We cross-correlate the cleaned H i data with the galaxy samples and study the overall amplitude as well as the scale dependence of the power spectrum. We also qualitatively compare our findings with the predictions by a semianalytical galaxy evolution simulation. The cross-correlations constrain the quantity $\Omega _{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} b_{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} r_{\rm {H\,\small {I}},{\rm opt}}$ at an effective scale keff, where $\Omega _\rm {H\,\small {I}}$ is the H  i density fraction, $b_\rm {H\,\small {I}}$ is the H i bias, and $r_{\rm {H\,\small {I}},{\rm opt}}$ the galaxy–hydrogen correlation coefficient,more »which is dependent on the H  i content of the optical galaxy sample. At $k_{\rm eff}=0.31 \, h\,{\rm Mpc^{-1}}$ we find $\Omega _{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} b_{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} r_{\rm {H\,\small {I}},{\rm Wig}} = [0.58 \pm 0.09 \, {\rm (stat) \pm 0.05 \, {\rm (sys)}}] \times 10^{-3}$ for GBT-WiggleZ, $\Omega _{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} b_{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} r_{\rm {H\,\small {I}},{\rm ELG}} = [0.40 \pm 0.09 \, {\rm (stat) \pm 0.04 \, {\rm (sys)}}] \times 10^{-3}$ for GBT-ELG, and $\Omega _{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} b_{\rm {H\,\small {I}}} r_{\rm {H\,\small {I}},{\rm LRG}} = [0.35 \pm 0.08 \, {\rm (stat) \pm 0.03 \, {\rm (sys)}}] \times 10^{-3}$ for GBT-LRG, at z ≃ 0.8. We also report results at $k_{\rm eff}=0.24$ and $k_{\rm eff}=0.48 \, h\,{\rm Mpc^{-1}}$. With little information on H i parameters beyond our local Universe, these are amongst the most precise constraints on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in an underexplored redshift range.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 11, 2023
  10. Abstract We apply a novel statistical analysis to measurements of 16 elemental abundances in 34,410 Milky Way disk stars from the final data release (DR17) of APOGEE-2. Building on recent work, we fit median abundance ratio trends [X/Mg] versus [Mg/H] with a 2-process model, which decomposes abundance patterns into a “prompt” component tracing core-collapse supernovae and a “delayed” component tracing Type Ia supernovae. For each sample star, we fit the amplitudes of these two components, then compute the residuals Δ[X/H] from this two-parameter fit. The rms residuals range from ∼0.01–0.03 dex for the most precisely measured APOGEE abundances to ∼0.1 dex for Na, V, and Ce. The correlations of residuals reveal a complex underlying structure, including a correlated element group comprised of Ca, Na, Al, K, Cr, and Ce and a separate group comprised of Ni, V, Mn, and Co. Selecting stars poorly fit by the 2-process model reveals a rich variety of physical outliers and sometimes subtle measurement errors. Residual abundances allow for the comparison of populations controlled for differences in metallicity and [ α /Fe]. Relative to the main disk ( R = 3–13 kpc), we find nearly identical abundance patterns in the outer disk ( R =more »15–17 kpc), 0.05–0.2 dex depressions of multiple elements in LMC and Gaia Sausage/Enceladus stars, and wild deviations (0.4–1 dex) of multiple elements in ω Cen. The residual abundance analysis opens new opportunities for discovering chemically distinctive stars and stellar populations, for empirically constraining nucleosynthetic yields, and for testing chemical evolution models that include stochasticity in the production and redistribution of elements.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023