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  1. The recent development of three-dimensional graphic statics using polyhedral reciprocal diagrams (PGS) has greatly increased the ease of designing complex yet efficient spatial funicular structural forms, where the inherent planarity of the polyhedral geometries can be harnessed for efficient construction processes. Our previous research has shown the feasibility of leveraging this planarity in materializing a 10m-span, double-layer glass bridge made of 1cm glass sheets. This paper presents a smaller bridge prototype with a span of 2.5m to address the larger bridge’s challenges regarding form-finding, detail developments, fabrication constraints, and assembly logic. The compression-only prototype is designed for prefabrication as amore »modular system using PolyFrame for Rhinoceros. Thirteen polyhedral cells of the funicular bridge are materialized in the form of hollow glass units (HGUs) and can be prefabricated and assembled on-site. Each HGU consists of two deck plates and multiple side plates held together using 3M™ Very High Bond (VHB) tape. A male-female glass connection mechanism is developed at the sides of HGUs to interlock each unit with its adjacent cells to prevent sliding. A transparent interface material is placed between the male and female connecting parts to avoid local stress concentration. This novel construction method significantly simplifies the bridge’s assembly on a large scale. The design and construction of this small-scale prototype set the foundation for the future development of the full-scale structure.« less
  2. The weak-wind boundary layer is characterized by turbulent and submeso-scale motions that break the assumptions necessary for using traditional eddy covariance observations such as horizontal homogeneity and stationarity, motivating the need for an observational system that allows spatially resolving measurements of atmospheric flows near the surface. Fiber­ Optic Distributed Sensing (FODS) potentially opens the door to observing a wide-range of atmospheric processes on a spatially 5 distributed basis and to date has been used to resolve the turbulent fields of air temperature and wind speed on scales of second and decimeters. Here we report on progress developing a FODS techniquemore »for observing spatially distributed wind direction. We affixed microstructures shaped as cones to actively-heated fiber-optic cables with opposing orientations to impose directionally-sensitive convective heat fluxes from the fiber-optic cable to the air, leading to a difference in sensed temperature that depends on the wind direction. We demonstrate the behavior of arange of microstructure parameters including aspect ratio, 10 spacing, and size and develop a simple deterministic model to explain the temperature differences as a function of wind speed. The mechanism behind the directionally-sensitive heat loss is explored using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and infrared images of the cone-fiber system. While the results presented here are only relevant for observing wind direction along one dimension it is an important step towards the ultimate goal of a full three-dimensional, distributed flow sensor.« less
  3. The weak-wind boundary layer is characterized by turbulent and submeso-scale motions that break the assumptions necessary for using traditional eddy covariance observations such as horizontal homogeneity and stationarity, motivating the need for an observational system that allows spatially resolving measurements of atmospheric flows near the surface. Fiber-Optic Distributed Sensing (FODS) potentially opens the door to observing a wide-range of atmospheric processes on a spatially distributed basis and to date has been used to resolve the turbulent fields of air temperature and wind speed on scales of second and decimeters. Here we report on progress developing a FODS technique for observingmore »spatially distributed wind direction. We affixed microstructures shaped as cones to actively-heated fiber-optic cables with opposing orientations to impose directionally-sensitive convective heat fluxes from the fiber-optic cable to the air, leading to a difference in sensed temperature that depends on the wind direction. We demonstrate the behavior of a range of microstructure parameters including aspect ratio, spacing, and size and develop a simple deterministic model to explain the temperature differences as a function of wind speed. The mechanism behind the directionally-sensitive heat loss is explored using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and infrared images of the cone-fiber system. While the results presented here are only relevant for observing wind direction along one dimension it is an important step towards the ultimate goal of a full three-dimensional, distributed flow sensor.« less
  4. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100more »TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Abstract Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities L IR ≥ 10 12 L ⊙ , making them the most luminous objects in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts with star formation rates that exceed 100 M ⊙ yr −1 , possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift z ≤ 0.13 usingmore »7.5 yr of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation, yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an unbroken E −2.5 power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked flux Φ ν μ + ν ¯ μ 90 % = 3.24 × 10 − 14 TeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 ( E / 10 TeV ) − 2.5 at 90% confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well as model predictions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023