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  1. ABSTRACT

    Blazars display variable emission across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, with time-scales that can range from a few minutes to several years. Our recent work has shown that a sample of five blazars exhibit hints of periodicity with a global significance ${\gtrsim}2\, \sigma$ at γ-ray energies, in the range of 0.1 GeV < E < 800 GeV. In this work, we study their multiwavelength emission, covering the X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio bands. We show that three of these blazars present similar periodic patterns in the optical and radio bands. Additionally, fluxes in the different bands of the five blazars are correlated, suggesting a co-spatial origin. Moreover, we detect a long-term (≈10 yr) rising trend in the light curves of PG 1553+113, and we use it to infer possible constraints on the binary black hole hypothesis.

     
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  2. The recent development of three-dimensional graphic statics using polyhedral reciprocal diagrams (PGS) has greatly increased the ease of designing complex yet efficient spatial funicular structural forms, where the inherent planarity of the polyhedral geometries can be harnessed for efficient construction processes. Our previous research has shown the feasibility of leveraging this planarity in materializing a 10m-span, double-layer glass bridge made of 1cm glass sheets. This paper presents a smaller bridge prototype with a span of 2.5m to address the larger bridge’s challenges regarding form-finding, detail developments, fabrication constraints, and assembly logic. The compression-only prototype is designed for prefabrication as a modular system using PolyFrame for Rhinoceros. Thirteen polyhedral cells of the funicular bridge are materialized in the form of hollow glass units (HGUs) and can be prefabricated and assembled on-site. Each HGU consists of two deck plates and multiple side plates held together using 3M™ Very High Bond (VHB) tape. A male-female glass connection mechanism is developed at the sides of HGUs to interlock each unit with its adjacent cells to prevent sliding. A transparent interface material is placed between the male and female connecting parts to avoid local stress concentration. This novel construction method significantly simplifies the bridge’s assembly on a large scale. The design and construction of this small-scale prototype set the foundation for the future development of the full-scale structure. 
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  3. The weak-wind boundary layer is characterized by turbulent and submeso-scale motions that break the assumptions necessary for using traditional eddy covariance observations such as horizontal homogeneity and stationarity, motivating the need for an observational system that allows spatially resolving measurements of atmospheric flows near the surface. Fiber-Optic Distributed Sensing (FODS) potentially opens the door to observing a wide-range of atmospheric processes on a spatially distributed basis and to date has been used to resolve the turbulent fields of air temperature and wind speed on scales of second and decimeters. Here we report on progress developing a FODS technique for observing spatially distributed wind direction. We affixed microstructures shaped as cones to actively-heated fiber-optic cables with opposing orientations to impose directionally-sensitive convective heat fluxes from the fiber-optic cable to the air, leading to a difference in sensed temperature that depends on the wind direction. We demonstrate the behavior of a range of microstructure parameters including aspect ratio, spacing, and size and develop a simple deterministic model to explain the temperature differences as a function of wind speed. The mechanism behind the directionally-sensitive heat loss is explored using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and infrared images of the cone-fiber system. While the results presented here are only relevant for observing wind direction along one dimension it is an important step towards the ultimate goal of a full three-dimensional, distributed flow sensor. 
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  4. The weak-wind boundary layer is characterized by turbulent and submeso-scale motions that break the assumptions necessary for using traditional eddy covariance observations such as horizontal homogeneity and stationarity, motivating the need for an observational system that allows spatially resolving measurements of atmospheric flows near the surface. Fiber­ Optic Distributed Sensing (FODS) potentially opens the door to observing a wide-range of atmospheric processes on a spatially 5 distributed basis and to date has been used to resolve the turbulent fields of air temperature and wind speed on scales of second and decimeters. Here we report on progress developing a FODS technique for observing spatially distributed wind direction. We affixed microstructures shaped as cones to actively-heated fiber-optic cables with opposing orientations to impose directionally-sensitive convective heat fluxes from the fiber-optic cable to the air, leading to a difference in sensed temperature that depends on the wind direction. We demonstrate the behavior of arange of microstructure parameters including aspect ratio, 10 spacing, and size and develop a simple deterministic model to explain the temperature differences as a function of wind speed. The mechanism behind the directionally-sensitive heat loss is explored using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and infrared images of the cone-fiber system. While the results presented here are only relevant for observing wind direction along one dimension it is an important step towards the ultimate goal of a full three-dimensional, distributed flow sensor. 
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  5. Abstract Mechanisms behind the phenomenon of Arctic amplification are widely discussed. To contribute to this debate, the (AC) 3 project was established in 2016 ( www.ac3-tr.de/ ). It comprises modeling and data analysis efforts as well as observational elements. The project has assembled a wealth of ground-based, airborne, shipborne, and satellite data of physical, chemical, and meteorological properties of the Arctic atmosphere, cryosphere, and upper ocean that are available for the Arctic climate research community. Short-term changes and indications of long-term trends in Arctic climate parameters have been detected using existing and new data. For example, a distinct atmospheric moistening, an increase of regional storm activities, an amplified winter warming in the Svalbard and North Pole regions, and a decrease of sea ice thickness in the Fram Strait and of snow depth on sea ice have been identified. A positive trend of tropospheric bromine monoxide (BrO) column densities during polar spring was verified. Local marine/biogenic sources for cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles were found. Atmospheric–ocean and radiative transfer models were advanced by applying new parameterizations of surface albedo, cloud droplet activation, convective plumes and related processes over leads, and turbulent transfer coefficients for stable surface layers. Four modes of the surface radiative energy budget were explored and reproduced by simulations. To advance the future synthesis of the results, cross-cutting activities are being developed aiming to answer key questions in four focus areas: lapse rate feedback, surface processes, Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and airmass transport and transformation. 
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  6. Abstract Core-collapse supernovae are a promising potential high-energy neutrino source class. We test for correlation between seven years of IceCube neutrino data and a catalog containing more than 1000 core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and IIP and a sample of stripped-envelope supernovae. We search both for neutrino emission from individual supernovae as well as for combined emission from the whole supernova sample, through a stacking analysis. No significant spatial or temporal correlation of neutrinos with the cataloged supernovae was found. All scenarios were tested against the background expectation and together yield an overall p -value of 93%; therefore, they show consistency with the background only. The derived upper limits on the total energy emitted in neutrinos are 1.7 × 10 48 erg for stripped-envelope supernovae, 2.8 × 10 48 erg for type IIP, and 1.3 × 10 49 erg for type IIn SNe, the latter disfavoring models with optimistic assumptions for neutrino production in interacting supernovae. We conclude that stripped-envelope supernovae and supernovae of type IIn do not contribute more than 14.6% and 33.9%, respectively, to the diffuse neutrino flux in the energy range of about [ 10 3 –10 5 ] GeV, assuming that the neutrino energy spectrum follows a power-law with an index of −2.5. Under the same assumption, we can only constrain the contribution of type IIP SNe to no more than 59.9%. Thus, core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and stripped-envelope supernovae can both be ruled out as the dominant source of the diffuse neutrino flux under the given assumptions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  7. Abstract The D-Egg, an acronym for “Dual optical sensors in an Ellipsoid Glass for Gen2,” is one of the optical modules designed for future extensions of the IceCube experiment at the South Pole. The D-Egg has an elongated-sphere shape to maximize the photon-sensitive effective area while maintaining a narrow diameter to reduce the cost and the time needed for drilling of the deployment holes in the glacial ice for the optical modules at depths up to 2700 m. The D-Egg design is utilized for the IceCube Upgrade, the next stage of the IceCube project also known as IceCube-Gen2 Phase 1, where nearly half of the optical sensors to be deployed are D-Eggs. With two 8-inch high-quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) per module, D-Eggs offer an increased effective area while retaining the successful design of the IceCube digital optical module (DOM). The convolution of the wavelength-dependent effective area and the Cherenkov emission spectrum provides an effective photodetection sensitivity that is 2.8 times larger than that of IceCube DOMs. The signal of each of the two PMTs is digitized using ultra-low-power 14-bit analog-to-digital converters with a sampling frequency of 240 MSPS, enabling a flexible event triggering, as well as seamless and lossless event recording of single-photon signals to multi-photons exceeding 200 photoelectrons within 10 ns. Mass production of D-Eggs has been completed, with 277 out of the 310 D-Eggs produced to be used in the IceCube Upgrade. In this paper, we report the design of the D-Eggs, as well as the sensitivity and the single to multi-photon detection performance of mass-produced D-Eggs measured in a laboratory using the built-in data acquisition system in each D-Egg optical sensor module. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  8. Abstract This paper presents the results of a search for neutrinos that are spatially and temporally coincident with 22 unique, nonrepeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) and one repeating FRB (FRB 121102). FRBs are a rapidly growing class of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical objects that are considered a potential source of high-energy neutrinos. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory’s previous FRB analyses have solely used track events. This search utilizes seven years of IceCube cascade events which are statistically independent of track events. This event selection allows probing of a longer range of extended timescales due to the low background rate. No statistically significant clustering of neutrinos was observed. Upper limits are set on the time-integrated neutrino flux emitted by FRBs for a range of extended time windows. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024