skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Schork, Nicholas J."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Lee, Benhur (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 40 million people worldwide, with over 1 million deaths as of October 2020 and with multiple efforts in the development and testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines under way. In order to gain insights into SARS-CoV-2 evolution and drug targets, we investigated how and to what extent the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence differs from those of other well-characterized human and animal coronavirus genomes, as well as how polymorphic SARS-CoV-2 genomes are generally. We ultimately sought to identify features in the SARS-CoV-2 genome that may contribute to its viral replication, host pathogenicity, and vulnerabilities. Our analyses suggest the presence of unique sequence signatures in the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of betacoronavirus lineage B, which phylogenetically encompasses SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV as well as multiple groups of bat and animal coronaviruses. In addition, we identified genome-wide patterns of variation across different SARS-CoV-2 strains that likely reflect the effects of selection. Finally, we provide evidence for a possible host-microRNA-mediated interaction between the 3′-UTR and human microRNA hsa-miR-1307-3p based on the results of multiple computational target prediction analyses and an assessment of similar interactions involving the influenza A H1N1 virus. This interaction also suggests amore »possible survival mechanism, whereby a mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 3′-UTR leads to a weakened host immune response. The potential roles of host microRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 replication and infection and the exploitation of conserved features in the 3′-UTR as therapeutic targets warrant further investigation. IMPORTANCE The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is having a dramatic global effect on public health and the economy. As of October 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in over 189 countries, has infected over 40 million people, and is responsible for more than 1 million deaths. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is small but complex, and its functions and interactions with human host factors are being studied extensively. The significance of our study is that, using extensive SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis techniques, we identified potential interacting human host microRNA targets that share similarity with those of influenza A virus H1N1. Our study results will allow the development of virus-host interaction models that will enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and motivate the exploitation of both the interacting viral and host factors as therapeutic targets.« less
  2. Abstract signatureSearch is an R/Bioconductor package that integrates a suite of existing and novel algorithms into an analysis environment for gene expression signature (GES) searching combined with functional enrichment analysis (FEA) and visualization methods to facilitate the interpretation of the search results. In a typical GES search (GESS), a query GES is searched against a database of GESs obtained from large numbers of measurements, such as different genetic backgrounds, disease states and drug perturbations. Database matches sharing correlated signatures with the query indicate related cellular responses frequently governed by connected mechanisms, such as drugs mimicking the expression responses of a disease. To identify which processes are predominantly modulated in the GESS results, we developed specialized FEA methods combined with drug-target network visualization tools. The provided analysis tools are useful for studying the effects of genetic, chemical and environmental perturbations on biological systems, as well as searching single cell GES databases to identify novel network connections or cell types. The signatureSearch software is unique in that it provides access to an integrated environment for GESS/FEA routines that includes several novel search and enrichment methods, efficient data structures, and access to pre-built GES databases, and allowing users to work with custom databases.