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Creators/Authors contains: "Schreck, III, Carl J."

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  1. Abstract

    The damage potential of a hurricane is widely considered to depend more strongly on an integrated measure of the hurricane wind field, such as integrated kinetic energy (IKE), than a point‐based wind measure, such as maximum sustained wind speed (Vmax). Recent work has demonstrated that minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) is also an integrated measure of the wind field. This study investigates how well historical continental US hurricane damage is predicted by MSLP compared to bothVmaxand IKE for continental United States hurricane landfalls for the period 1988–2021. We first show for the entire North Atlantic basin that MSLP is much better correlated with IKE (rrank = 0.50) thanVmax(rrank = 0.26). We then show that continental US hurricane normalized damage is better predicted by MSLP (rrank = 0.83) than eitherVmax(rrank = 0.67) or IKE (rrank = 0.65). For Georgia to Maine hurricane landfalls specifically, MSLP and IKE show similar levels of skill at predicting damage, whereasVmaxprovides effectively no predictive power. Conclusions for IKE extend to power dissipation as well, as the two quantities are highly correlated because wind radii closely follow a Modified Rankine vortex. The physical relationship of MSLP to IKE and power dissipation is discussed. In addition to better representing damage, MSLP is also much easier to measure via aircraft or surface observations than eitherVmaxor IKE, and it is already routinely estimated operationally. We conclude that MSLP is an ideal metric for characterizing hurricane damage risk.

     
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  2. Abstract

    This study investigates global tropical cyclone (TC) activity trends from 1990 to 2021, a period marked by largely consistent observational platforms. Several global TC metrics have decreased during this period, with significant decreases in hurricane numbers and Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE). Most of this decrease has been driven by significant downward trends in the western North Pacific. Globally, short‐lived named storms, 24‐hr intensification events of ≥50 kt day−1, and TC‐related damage have increased significantly. The increase in short‐lived named storms is likely due to technological improvements, while rapidly intensifying TC increases may be fueled by higher potential intensity. Damage increases are largely due to increased coastal assets. The significant decrease in hurricane numbers and global ACE are likely due to the trend toward a more La Niña‐like base state from 1990 to 2021, favoring North Atlantic TC activity and suppressing North and South Pacific TC activity.

     
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  3. Abstract

    This study investigates the diurnal cycle of rainfall, convection, and precipitation features (PFs) over the Maritime Continent (MC). The study uses Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missions (TRMM) Multi‐satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA; product 3b42), TRMM PFs, and convective classifications from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. Together, these satellites dataset paint a comprehensive picture of the diurnal cycle of rainfall and convection over the MC consistent with past research. Isolated convection initiates around midday over the higher terrain of the large islands (Java, Borneo, and Papua New Guinea). The convection becomes more organized through the afternoon and evening, leading to peak rainfall over the islands around 1800–2100 local standard time (LST). Over the next few hours, some of that rainfall transitions to stratiform rain over land. The convection then propagates offshore overnight with rainfall peaking along the coast around 0300–0600 LST and then over ocean around 0600–0900 LST. ISCCP data suggests that the overnight and early morning convection is more associated with isolated convective cells than the remnants of mesoscale convective systems. The coastal and oceanic diurnal ranges also seem to be larger in stratiform rainfall, in contrast to land where convective rainfall dominates. Seasonally the diurnal variation of rainfall, convection, and PFs over the region have greater amplitude during DJF (December, January, and February) than JJA (June, July, and August). Given the MC's critical role in the global climate, examining variations in these cycles with respect to the Madden–Julian Oscillation and equatorial waves may ultimately lead to improved subseasonal weather forecasts.

     
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