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  1. The ongoing development of redox-active charge carriers for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries has led to energy-dense storage concepts and chemistries with high cell voltages. However, rarely are these candidates for flowable energy storage evaluated in tandem with cell separators compatible with organic solvent, limiting progress in the identification of suitable charge carrier–separator pairings. This is important, as the efficiency of a redox-flow battery is dictated by extent of active species crossover through a separator, dividing the two cells, and the contribution of the separator to cell resistance. Here, we report the size-dependent crossover behavior of a series of redox-active vanadium(III) acetoacetonate, and two polyoxovanadate-alkoxide clusters, [V6O7(OR)12] (R = CH3, C5H11) through separators derived from polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs). We find that highly efficacious active-material blocking requires both increasing the size of the vanadium species and restricting pore swelling of the PIMs in nonaqueous electrolyte. Notably, increasing the size of the vanadium species does not significantly affect its redox reversibility, and reducing swelling decreases the conductivity of the separator by only 50%. By pairing polyoxometalate clusters with PIM membranes in nonaqueous redox-flow batteries, more efficient systems may well be within reach.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 17, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
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  8. Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are monitoring the sky and collecting gravitational-wave strain data with sufficient sensitivity to detect signals routinely. In this paper we describe the data recorded by these instruments during their first and second observing runs. The main data products are gravitational-wave strain time series sampled at 16384 Hz. The datasets that include this strain measurement can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at, together with data-quality information essential for the analysis of LIGO and Virgo data, documentation, tutorials, and supporting software.
  9. Abstract We present our current best estimate of the plausible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next several years, with the intention of providing information to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals for the third (O3), fourth (O4) and fifth observing (O5) runs, including the planned upgrades of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. We study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source for gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary systems of compact objects, that is binary neutron star, neutron star–black hole, and binary black hole systems. The ability to localize the sources is given as a sky-area probability, luminosity distance, and comoving volume. The median sky localization area (90% credible region) is expected to be a few hundreds of square degrees for all types of binary systems during O3 with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo (HLV) network. The median sky localization area will improve to a few tens of square degrees during O4 with the Advanced LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA (HLVK) network. During O3, the median localization volume (90% crediblemore »region) is expected to be on the order of $$10^{5}, 10^{6}, 10^{7}\mathrm {\ Mpc}^3$$ 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 Mpc 3 for binary neutron star, neutron star–black hole, and binary black hole systems, respectively. The localization volume in O4 is expected to be about a factor two smaller than in O3. We predict a detection count of $$1^{+12}_{-1}$$ 1 - 1 + 12 ( $$10^{+52}_{-10}$$ 10 - 10 + 52 ) for binary neutron star mergers, of $$0^{+19}_{-0}$$ 0 - 0 + 19 ( $$1^{+91}_{-1}$$ 1 - 1 + 91 ) for neutron star–black hole mergers, and $$17^{+22}_{-11}$$ 17 - 11 + 22 ( $$79^{+89}_{-44}$$ 79 - 44 + 89 ) for binary black hole mergers in a one-calendar-year observing run of the HLV network during O3 (HLVK network during O4). We evaluate sensitivity and localization expectations for unmodeled signal searches, including the search for intermediate mass black hole binary mergers.« less
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