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  1. Mineral weathering is an important soil-forming process driven by the interplay of water, organisms, solution chemistry, and mineralogy. The influence of hillslope-scale patterns of water flux on mineral weathering in soils is still not well understood, particularly in humid postglacial soils, which commonly harbor abundant weath- erable primary minerals. Previous work in these settings showed the importance of lateral hydrologic patterns to hillslope-scale pedogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that there is a corresponding relationship between hydrologically driven pedogenesis and chemical weathering in podzols in the White Mountains of New Hamp- shire, USA. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the depletion of plagioclase in the fine fraction (≤2 mm) of closely spaced, similar-age podzols along a gradient in topography and depth to bedrock that controls lateral water flow. Along this gradient, laterally developed podzols formed through frequent, episodic flushing by up- slope groundwater, and vertically developed podzols formed through characteristic vertical infiltration. We estimated the depletion of plagioclase-bound elements within the upper mineral horizons of podzols using mass transfer coefficients (τ) and quantified plagioclase losses directly through electron microscopy and microprobe analysis. Elemental depletion was significantly more pronounced in the upslope lateral eluvial (E horizon- dominant) podzols relative to lateral illuvial (B horizon-dominant) and vertical (containing both E and B hori- zons) podzols downslope, with median Na losses of ~74 %, ~56 %, and ~40 %, respectively. When comparing genetic E horizons, Na and Al were significantly more depleted in laterally developed podzols relative to vertically developed podzols. Microprobe analysis revealed that ~74 % of the plagioclase was weathered from the mineral pool of lateral eluvial podzols, compared to ~39 % and ~23 % for lateral illuvial podzols and vertically developed podzols, respectively. Despite this intense weathering, plagioclase remains the second most abundant mineral in soil thin sections. These findings confirm that the concept of soil development as occurring vertically does not accurately characterize soils in topographically complex regions. Our work improves the current understanding of pedogenesis by identifying distinct, short-scale gradients in mineral weathering shaped by local patterns of hydrology and topography. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. High-frequency measurements of light absorbance were collected at multiple depths in Falling Creek Reservoir (FCR; Vinton, VA, USA) using a s::can Spectrolyser UV-Visible spectrophotometer coupled with a multiplexor pumping system. The system pumps water samples from individual depths into a flow-through cuvette where the UV-vis absorbance spectra of the sample are measured by the spectrophotometer. The system used in our study collected measurements of light absorbance every 2.5 nm wavelengths from 200 nm to 732.5 nm (optical path length of 10 mm) approximately at an hourly time step for seven monitoring depths in the reservoir. Data was collected during two periods; the first deployment (16 October to 9 November 2020) was to observe changes in Fe and Mn concentrations before, during, and after reservoir fall turnover and the second deployment (26 May to 21 June 2021) was to observe the effects of engineered hypolimnetic oxygenation on Fe and Mn concentrations. Partial least squares regression models were developed to generate predictions of total and soluble Fe and Mn concentrations based on the correlation between absorbance spectra and sampling data. 
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  4. Depth profiles of total and soluble iron and manganese were sampled from 2014-2022 in three drinking-water reservoirs, Falling Creek Reservoir (FCR), Beaverdam Reservoir (BVR), and Carvins Cove Reservoir (CCR). FCR and BVR are located in Vinton, Virginia, USA and CCR is located in Roanoke, Virginia, USA. All reservoirs are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority and are managed as drinking-water sources for the city of Roanoke, Virginia, USA. The dataset includes metals samples that were collected along a depth profile taken at the deepest site of BVR and FCR. At FCR, additional samples were collected at a gauged weir located on the primary inflow tributary and at a secondary tributary. The summer 2022 sampling campaign also included inflows and a depth profile of CCR, and an upstream site at BVR. At FCR and BVR, sampling frequency was approximately weekly during the summer and fall (May - October), approximately fortnightly during the spring (March - April), and approximately monthly during the winter (November - March). At CCR, sampling frequency was approximately fortnightly during summer (May - October). 
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  5. Sediment traps were deployed to assess the mass and composition (iron, manganese, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) of settling particulates in the water column of two drinking water reservoirs—Beaverdam Reservoir and Falling Creek Reservoir, both located in Vinton, Virginia, USA. Sediment traps were deployed at two depths in each reservoir to capture both epilimnetic and hypolimnetic (total) sediment flux. The particulates were collected from the traps approximately fortnightly from April to December from 2018 to 2022, then filtered, dried, and analyzed for either iron and manganese or total organic carbon and total nitrogen. Beaverdam and Falling Creek are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority as primary or secondary drinking water sources for Roanoke, Virginia. The sediment trap dataset consists of logs detailing the sample filtering process, the mass of dried particulates from each filter, and the raw concentration data for iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). The final products are the calculated downward fluxes of solid Fe, Mn, TOC and TN during the deployment periods. 
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  6. Abstract

    Groundwater flow direction within the critical zone of headwater catchments is often assumed to mimic land surface topographic gradients. However, groundwater hydraulic gradients are also influenced by subsurface permeability contrasts, which can result in variability in flow direction and magnitude. In this study, we investigated the relationship between shallow groundwater flow direction, surface topography, and the subsurface topography of low permeability units in a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH. We continuously monitored shallow groundwater levels in the solum throughout several seasons in a well network (20 wells of 0.18–1.1 m depth) within the upper hillslopes of Watershed 3 of the HBEF. Water levels were also monitored in four deeper wells, screened from 2.4 to 6.9 m depth within glacial drift of the C horizon. We conducted slug tests across the well network to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of the materials surrounding each well. Results showed that under higher water table regimes, groundwater flow direction mimics surface topography, but under lower water table regimes, flow direction can deviate as much as 56 degrees from surface topography. Under these lower water table conditions, groundwater flow direction instead followed the topography of the top of the C horizon. The interquartile range ofKsatwithin the C horizon was two orders of magnitude lower than within the solum. Overall, our results suggest that the land surface topography and the top of the C horizon acted as end members defining the upper and lower bounds of flow direction variability. This suggests that temporal dynamics of groundwater flow direction should be considered when calculating hydrologic fluxes in critical zone and runoff generation studies of headwater catchments that are underlain by glacial drift.

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  7. Provision of safe drinking water by water utilities is challenged by disturbances to water quality that have become increasingly frequent due to global changes and anthropogenic impacts. Many water utilities are turning to adaptable and flexible strategies to allow for resilient management of drinking water supplies. The success of resilience-based management depends on, and is enabled by, positive relationships with the public. To understand how relationships between managers and communities spill over to in-home drinking water behavior, we examined the role of trust, risk perceptions, salience of drinking water, and water quality evaluations in the choice of in-home drinking water sources for a population in Roanoke Virginia. Using survey data, our study characterized patterns of in-home drinking water behavior and explored related perceptions to determine if residents’ perceptions of their water and the municipal water utility could be intuited from this behavior. We characterized drinking water behavior using a hierarchical cluster analysis and highlighted the importance of studying a range of drinking water patterns. Through analyses of variance, we found that people who drink more tap water have higher trust in their water managers, evaluate water quality more favorably, have lower risk perceptions, and pay less attention to changes in their tap water. Utility managers may gauge information about aspects of their relationships with communities by examining drinking water behavior, which can be used to inform their future interactions with the public, with the goal of increasing resilience and adaptability to external water supply threats. 
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  8. Abstract

    Freshwater lakes and reservoirs play a disproportionate role in the global organic carbon (OC) budget, as active sites for carbon processing and burial. Associations between OC and iron (Fe) are hypothesized to contribute substantially to the stabilization of OC in sediment, but the magnitude of freshwater Fe‐OC complexation remains unresolved. Moreover, global declines in bottom‐water oxygen concentrations have the potential to alter OC and Fe cycles in multiple ways, and the net effects of low‐oxygen (hypoxic) conditions on OC and Fe are poorly characterized. Here, we measured the pool of Fe‐bound OC (Fe‐OC) in surficial sediments from two eutrophic reservoirs, and we paired whole‐ecosystem experiments with sediment incubations to determine the effects of hypoxia on OC and Fe cycling over multiple timescales. Our experiments demonstrated that short periods (2–4 weeks) of hypoxia can increase aqueous Fe and OC concentrations while decreasing OC and Fe‐OC in surficial sediment by 30%. However, exposure to seasonal hypoxia over multiple years was associated with a 57% increase in sediment OC and no change in sediment Fe‐OC. These results suggest that the large sediment Fe‐OC pool (∼30% of sediment OC in both reservoirs) contains both oxygen‐sensitive and oxygen‐insensitive fractions, and over multiannual timescales OC respiration rates may play a more important role in determining the effect of hypoxia on sediment OC than Fe‐OC dissociation. Consequently, we anticipate that global declines in oxygen concentrations will alter OC and Fe cycling, with the direction and magnitude of effects dependent upon the duration of hypoxia.

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